1985 年 50 巻 6 号 p. 721-741,774-77
It has been proved that there were a lot of land alienations among the peasantry in medieval England. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between the land alienation and the peasant family, through analizing 'Carte Nativorum' of the Peterborough Abbey. In this record complied in the fourteenth century, we find about 500 charters concerning the land alienation among the peasantry, of wich 50 are related to the intra-familial land transfers. The custom of inheritance among the peasantry is primogeniture, which was enforeced by the lord. The lands acquired by charters were distinguished from the patrimonial properties which were subject to primogeniture, and the alienation of them were comparatively free. In most cases the peasants gave most of them to their children who had not been allowed to inherit the patrimonial properties, while they were alive. Not only sons but also daughters got such lands. The lands got by this means were nomally quite little. Occasionally some of them accumulated more lands by purchase and became well-to-do, but it seems that a majority were near the cottars. Many of them got married and had their families on the bases of these little holdings. In conclusion the custom of primogeniture does not necessarily mean that the only one son inherited the whole of his parent's land. The land alienation among the peasantry seems to play an important role in maintaining the custom of primogeniture. Since in most cases the land acquire by purchase was not always added to the patrimonial property and was distributed among the children, the existence of the land market did not necessarily result in the social differentiation in the peasantry.