1993 年 59 巻 3 号 p. 372-400,471
The linen industry was the staple of the Scottish economy in the 18th century. The development of the industry has been considered very important in the industrialization of Scotland; later it also played an indispensable role in the development of the Scottish cotton industry. In order to make clear the relationship between these two industries, we should first investigate the characterictics of the Scottish linen industry in the 18th century. First of all, we have to inquire into the character of the industry policy maker, the Board of Trustees for Fisheries and Manufactures in Scotland, in the 1700s. The Board of Trustees was a semi-official agency constituted in 1727 under the regulations of the Treaty of Union of England and Scotland of 1707. Just because the Board of Trustees was regulated by the Treaty of Union, many of its policies reflected the relation between these two coutries after the Union. The series of schemes for the promotion of the linen industry, rather than the woollen industry, is one example. Under these policies, we can see that Scotland sought to have an economic relationship with England which wsa complementary, not competitive. This is why Scotland had to develop the linen industry, rather than the wollen industry. Secondly, we will examine the contents of the policies the Board of Trustees had adopted for the promotion of the linen industry by the year 1780, and look into the improvements that the linen industry had made by the same year. This subject will be discussed through examining the five main steps of the linen manufacturing process: (1) the cultivation of flax; (2) the preparation of flax for spinning; (3) spinning; (4) weaving; (5) bleaching. Finally, we come to the conclusion that under the encouragement of the Board of Trustees, merchant capital earned a dominant position at all the stage of linen manufacturing. Merchants played a great role in establishing a link between all the steps of the manufacturing process. In additon, they helped to increase the market share of Scottish linens, especially in the American colonial market. Those characteristics of the Scottish linen industry were also passed on to the Scottish cotton industry from the late 1700s.