1994 年 103 巻 10 号 p. 1739-1772,1887-
Bureaucratic salaries as stipulated by the ritsuryo 律令 system consisted of the two elements of roku 禄 and shi 賜. The former, which formed the wherewithal to support the everyday lives of officials within the bureaucracy, still has many aspects that have yet to be studied. In the present paper, the author discusses through an examination of the basic framework of bureaucratic salaries in eight and ninth century Japan the idea, structure and principles behind the system. The framework of this system was largely determined by 1)the ritsuryo state's character as a regime based in the Kinai region and 2)its ruling class made up of aristocrats of the fifth rank and above. In other words, sustenance households (jikifu 食封) and stipends adjusted according to rank (iroku 位禄) came into being as the special privileges of the ruling class; and semiannual stipends (kiroku 季禄) were established as one way of directly controlling the imperial family and professional bureaucrats. It was these two antagonistic relations that were formed into the Taiho Ritsuryo Codes' salary provisions (Rokuryo 禄令) and are what can be said to be the basic principles behind the state's central salary payment policy. With the establishment of a salary system discriminating between capital-and provincially-based bureaucrats, we see a general system created under which bureaucrats in the capital were paid biannually from collected taxes and tribute, while bureaucrats in the provinces were paid with revenues from land allocated to them (shikiden 職田). One more basic principle behind roku has to do with allocations of food and cloth. Allocations of cloth (jifuku 時服) was based on the principle underlying the ritsuryo salary code, in that it was a lower form of roku paid to a class of menial workers employed outside of the iroku/kiroku provisions and functioned to make them also a part of the bureaucracy. By this interpretation, the author calls for a revision of the conventional thinking that jifuku was an institution set up after the ritsuryo codes (ryoge 令外). Roku system involved the ceremonial aspect of conferring salaries upon individuals through various types of rituals shirokugi 賜禄儀. Recipents were required to gather at the central treasury to be informed officially of their salary statuses. This ceremonial aspect is different from the case of China's "ritsuryo" institutions, which granted salaries on the basis of ethical norms. In Japan, the salary system retained a character of service, benefit and political idea, that is, the distribution of tribute to Kinai area. However, by the second half of the ninth century, We observe a hollowing out of these institutions due to declining revenues on the central level and the payment of salaries directly from provincial offices. One measure to revive the system was vesting allocations of gift in seasonal court banquets (sechiroku 節禄) with the role of salary like roku. As a result, the privileged benefit aspect of roku increased in importance as the role of the ritsuryo state shrunk in size and breadth.