史学雑誌
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
戦時労働力政策の形成過程 : 総動員計画と職業紹介行政との関わりを中心に
河 棕文
著者情報
ジャーナル フリー

1994 年 103 巻 10 号 p. 1794-1813,1884-

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This paper analyzes the processes of labor mobilization planning before the outbreak of the Japan-China War in 1937, and puts emphasis on the linkage between the Mobilization Plan and the changes in the labor exchange project. The research on the labor mobilization system was started by the Army, which had studied the war organization of Germany during World War I, which was based on the premise that "total war" would necessitate the distribution and control of all manpower. It contained institutions for "labor requisitioning", reformation of the employment agency, and the prevention and settlement of labor disputes. The scheme of the army was taken over by the Bureau of Resource (資源局)'s Mobilization Plan. During the process of the Periodical Plan of Emergency Mobilization (応急総動員期間計画), the framework of the labor mobilization system…refomation of the agencies for labor mobilization, control of labor exchange, encouragement of labor patriotism, regulation of labor conditions, prevention of labor disputes, training of labor power, and execution of labor requisitioning…was nearly completed. The basic unit of the supply and demand of labor power in wartime was the Prefecture, and Bureau of Labor (労務局) adjusted disparities among several Prefectures, and employment agencies as the organ of implementation were reinforced and nationalized. As the planning progressed, the scale of labor power increased. The main thesis of labor mobilization, therefore, escalated from the control of labor exchange…restriction on employment and mobility…into the mobilization of new labor power; i.e. labor requisitioning. The Social Bureau (社会局) participated actively in the Mobilization Plan according to the industrial and labor conditions of that period. And that trend was known to the officials concerned with labor exchange. They considered it as a good opportunity for the nationalization of employment agencies, which would be some of the most important organs for labor mobilization. This is the hidden aspect of labor exchange projects before the Japan-China War. The abolition of the Labor Exchange Office (職業紹介事務局) in 1936 was planned and promoted in connection with Mobilization Plan.

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© 1994 公益財団法人 史学会
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