史学雑誌
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
近世後期における寺檀関係と檀家組織 : 下越後真宗優勢地帯を事例として
朴澤 直秀
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ジャーナル フリー

1995 年 104 巻 6 号 p. 1115-1142,1208-

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The clarification of the actual relationships between authorized Buddhist sect temples and their patrons (danka 壇家) is necessary if we are to 1)better our understanding of religious policy and registration of community members under the Tokugawa regime, 2)discover the actual patterns of everyday life in rural and urban Japanese society during that time, and 3)expand the study of ideas existing among the various social strata of the time. In the research on the subject to date, scholars have come to understand the relationship (jidan 寺壇 relationship) in the literal sence and have proceeded to investigate the relationship from the viewpoint of the relationship between political power and Buddhism or the common people. However, at the same time, we should also try to understand this relationship between temples and their patrons in terms of the organization of the congregations themselves, referred to in the source materials as danchu 壇中, thus focussing on the relationships between patrons. This viewpoint also demands that we look at the relationships between patrons and non-patrons of a temple living in the same area: that is, the relationship between those who were members of speciflc danchu and those who were not, resulting in an important insight on the local society around a given temple. In reality, temple-patron relationships were much more complicated in many areas depending on regional characteristics, and each member of a local community was entangled in patron relationship to different temples in the area. It is this intricate pattern of jidan relationships that is the focus of the present paper: that is, the author is attempting to examine the relationship between temples and their patrons in terms of the patron organization and the entanglement of belief systems in any one village or local area. For this purpose, he presents the case of the area around the village of Yoita 与板, Santo-Gun 三島郡, in the region of Shimo-Echigo 下越後. Shin 真 Buddhism has been predominant around the area. After clarifying the local patron organizations, he attempts to place the resulting temple-patron relationships in terms of beliefs by going beyond the temple-patron relationships and viewing, the total relationship between the religious institutions and the local community as a whole through an analysis of local kami 神 beliefs, centering around village guardian deities, in addition to a description of how the Yoita branch of the Nishi-Honganji 西本願寺 Shin sect was established. From these examples, he concludes that 1)a village-level patron organization existed with the function of not only local beliefs but the relationship between the patron organization and its patron temple (danna-dera 檀那寺), or religious sect, and 2)a relationship that transcended relationships between individual temples and their patrons also existed, which tied local religious institutions (shrines and temples alike) to all local groups and individuals.

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© 1995 公益財団法人 史学会
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