1995 年 104 巻 8 号 p. 1361-1396,1517-
While persons known as jikyosha 持経者 have been recognized in the research literature as holy people (ヒジリ), it is still not clear what the practice of "jikyo" actually involved. In this paper the author intends to understand jikyosha within the context of the historical development of Japanese society. In the Nihon Ryoiki 日本霊異記, jikyo appears to be on a level with incantation in the sense of learning sutras and reciting them from memory. In the eighth century under the ritsuryo state reciting the Lotus Sutra and Saisho-o sutra by heart was a requirement for entering the Buddhist priesthood. This policy was strictly maintained until the mid-tenth century, during which time it was a widespread custom for novices to memorize sutras while performing begging in the streets and asceticism in the wild. The ritsuryo code for Buddhist priests and nuns was abandoned, and jikyosha then appeared as holy people with their bases of activity in the mountains and forests. There are many place names related to jikyosha in the source materials concerning Shugen-do 修験道 (mountain asceticism), meaning that many legendary ascetics like those of Omine 大峯 and Kumano 熊野 were regarded as jikyosha and were in a position to perform the Buddhahood ceremony (abhiseka 潅頂) and grant legitimacy with engi 縁起 to other mountain ascetic. The recital of sutras from memory was considered to be a magical, mystic training requiring supernatural virtue and determined by the practice of one's past life. Mountain asceticism and sutra recital are similar in the aspect of attaining magical character, and both were in fact complementary to each other. The promotion of sutra recital by the ancient state shows its intention not only to absorb its magical power, but also control and limit it. During the eleventh and twelfth centuries, demonstrations of magical power took genuine form in response to the demands of the society. The divine service of jikyosha for aristcrats and provincial governors in their small Buddhist chapels and ceremonies involving some 1000 jikyosha in the Lotus Sutra tradition were seen throughout the country, even though the actual number of jikyosha was small. Sutra recital was not only an important part of special ceremonies, but also became part of yearly or monthly Buddhist liturgies. Shunjo-bo Chogen 俊乗房重源 was a representative jikyosha of the time. He was during his prime a mountain ascetic, and during his activities in the great Kanjin 勧進 of Todaiji temple, he often mobilized jikyosha in the ceremony of his own planning. During his last years, he was active in promoting memorization of the Lotus Sutra among children and organized 1000 jikyosha events. Through an analysis of Chogen's activities, the author shows the definite establishment of a place for jikyosha activities within the Ken-mitsu 顕密 Buddhist temple like Todaiji. The paper concludes with an investigation of why from the thirteenth century the general Buddhist laity were allowed to memorize and recite sutras, a consideration of the broader meaning of the practice, in addition to a discussion of themes for future study, like the relationship between jikyosha and Nichiren 日蓮.