1995 年 104 巻 8 号 p. 1397-1433,1516-
Up till now the history of relations between the Ming Dynasty and the Ri Dynasty (李朝) has been studied from the viewpoint that the Ming Dynasty was better placed than the Ri Dynasty. In this paper, through the study of Sino-Korea relations at the time of the T'u-mu 土木 crisis (15 August 1449), the author attempts to find a clue to the tone of the Sino-Korean tse-feng 冊封 system. During the Cheng-t'ung 正統 era, the wo-k'ou (倭寇), who had been out of hand since the early Ming, began to be held in check. After the power of wo-k'ou faded away, the Oirat (オイラ-ト) extended rapidly their power from northwest China. In the early Ming period, the T'u-mu crisis symbolized this change of circumstances. With the advance of the Oirat, the emphasis of the Ming Dynasty frontier defense shifted to the northern frontier. The Ri Dynasty was closely connected with the Ming Dynasty's pei-lu nan-wo (北慮南寇) countermove; and just after the T'u-mu crisis, the Ming Dynasty demanded that Korea should send re-enforcements and twenty or thirty thousand horses to the Ming Dynasty. To begin with, the meaning of the demand for horses was that the maintenance of the tse-feng system was indispensable to both the Ming emperor and the king of Korea. Because it meant security against pei-lu nan-wo and the maintenance of a self-centered world order. Furthermore the author points out that Liao-tung Tu-ssu (遼東郡司) stood geographically between the Ming Dynasty and Korea and played important diplomatic and military roles. Liao-tung Tu-ssu which was in trouble side and outside the Ming Dynasty, took the initiative of demand for reinforcements in September and October 1449. The author concludes that! (1)It is necessary to consider that the Sino-Korean tse-feng system simultaneously in terms of the relations between the Ming emperor and the Korean king and the relations among Liao-tung Tu-ssu, the Korean king and the northdastern tribes. (2)It was necessary for the Ming emperor, Liao-tung Tu-ssu and the Korean king to maintain and make use of the tse-feng system.