1998 年 107 巻 12 号 p. 2045-2082,2199-
Regarding the research to date on the Safavid Dynasty, little has been done on its later years (i.e. after the reformation of Shah Abbas I). In this article, much attention is paid to the activities of the Gholams who came to participate in every area of the Dynasty's ruling organization in an attempt to clarify the power structure at that time. In his efforts to reform the nomadic state system whic existed from early days of the dynasty, Abbas I organized people from the Caucasus who had already served the Imperial Court and created a new elite layer by name of "Gholam". These people occupied every political high administrative post imaginable, not only military but also fiscal owing to their relationship to the Shah and imperial court. Under this new ruling system, the Imperial Court became the core of the administrative mechanism and took on a more official color in contrast to the Shah's private executive organ. As a result of these refoms, the Dynasty was thought to be moving towards a more unified system, replacing the so-called Turk-Tajik (nomadic state). Under this new system, Shah did not, contrary to all suppositions, exercised absolute authority as a dictatorial monarch, nor did any particular group…for example Gholams…monopolize power within the Dynasty. On the contrary, state officials use their connections, including kinship relations and occupational careers, more flexibly, and above them powerful officials occupied high social status that almost became hereditary. A man of Qizilbash origin would work as a mostoufi or nazer under a local government headed by a Gholam. Under such circumstances, the Shah assured their posts as the only stable authority. The Safavid Dynasty created a new state order based on unified and centralized authority, introducing the new elite group, the Gholam. This reform brought about stability that lasted for almost a century.