2008 年 117 巻 4 号 p. 515-539
In the county of Barcelona during the age of the Gregorian Reform, the relationship between the Count of Barcelona and the Church was transformed both in form and in substance. At some church councils, it was decided that the Church should revive the right of clerical investiture. Consequently, bishops, who had been elected exclusively from upper aristocratic families, like those of counts or viscounts, could now be chosen from middle or lower aristocratic families. There are three reasons which enabled such a change. The first is the cooperation received from the Count of Barcelona. Counts of the age were trying to reestablish their relations with the Church in the role of protectors and collaborators. Secondly, in Catalonia of the age exisled social circumstances which are tavorable for the change in the form of rising middle or lower aristocratic families. Thirdly, there exisled the political interest of the Count of Barcelona, who needed the Pope's friendship to carry out his war against the Muslims. Therefore, the bishoprics were removed from the Count's control in Barcelona without any conflict between the secular ruler and the clergy, but rather with the ruler's cooperation. It was inevitable that such changes would bring about a transformation of the political system, in which bishops had played a more important role. First, it took place the secularization of the Count's rule over the county : for example, some rights of a bishopric were transferred to the Count's seneschal, and the relationship between the Count and one viscount of the region was reinforced. Secondly, although upper aristocratic families lost their exclusive influence over the bishoprics, the Count did not lose his influence over the bishoprics, by holding on to his right to confirm the investiture of the bishop elect. Thirdly, through the authority of the Count over bishoprics in charge of personal affairs regressed, it appeared the policy of the Count to make use of church councils by exercising his authority as the protector of the Church. In this way, a new political order was being born in the county of Barcelona in the form of a regression to direct control over the bishoprics by the Count's family.