2011 年 120 巻 12 号 p. 1955-1989
The primary purpose of this article is to offer a new explanation concerning the circumstances under which the archbishopric of Lund was chosen as the location from which ecclesiastical jurisdiction all over Scandinavia, including the North Atlantic Isles, was exercised from 1103/4 to 1152. Little of the research to date has paid much attention to the peculiar nature of the Church Province of Lund during this period. Rather, the focus has been concentrated either on domestic factors within the Kingdom of Denmark, or on the completely extra-Scandinavian conflict happening between the Reform Papacy and the archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen, who enjoyed missionary jurisdiction over that region. The present article offers another possible explanation from an inter-Scandinavian or Nordic point of view, mainly focusing on personal networks and collaboration among the rulers and churchmen of Scandinavia around 1100. The author begins by identifying two important factors in the church organization of late eleventh century Scandinavia. Most of Scandinavia during that period, especially Norway and Sweden, was not geographically divided into local bishoprics, but instead largely relied on the activity of visiting missionary bishops. On the other hand, by the middle of the eleventh century, the bishops of Lund-Scania already boasted a long tradition of playing a role similar to a missionary bishop, converting non-Christian people and fulfilling the pastoral needs of Christians in places outside of their own bishopric. In order to further the discussion, the author offers the hypothesis that the primarily significance of these bishops should be focused on such peripatetic activities rather than on sedentary duties within their own bishopric. Therefore, one should conclude that the bishops of Lund-Scania had already developed relationships with churches through Scandinavia even before Lund's successful promotion to an archbishopric. The last half of the article explores the question of by whose enterprise these networks of missionary churchmen in Scandinavia were shaped and controlled. Although it was the archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen who held ecclesiastical jurisdiction over Scandinavian bishops in form of parchments, it was the King of the Danes who acted as their real 'patron' on the ground. From the turn of the first millennium through to the first half of the 12th century, Danish kings dominated the Scandinavian World (imperium Nordmannorum), a specific political region mainly in the southern part of the Scandinavian peninsula, comprised of the emerging three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The Danish kings were able to pursue their own church policy within this region, independent of the archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen. This church policy intricately entwined with their attempts to establish political supremacy over the other rulers of the Scandinavian World during that time. The close collaboration that existed between the "missionary" bishops of Lund/ Scania and the king of the Danes was no exception, and in fact epitomized the kind of symbiosis that existed between ecclesiastical and secular authorities regarding missionary work carried on in eleventh-century Scandinavia. It is in this collaboration where lies the key to the centralized jurisdiction enjoyed by the metropolis of Lund as a Nordic missionary stronghold.