1976 年 85 巻 12 号 p. 1613-1652,1720-
The December 9 Movement was a starting point of the anti-Japanese mass movement and the anti-Japanese national united front. The students in Peking started this movement after making their own organizational and political preparations. These efforts led to the great December 16 demonstration parade and also to a movement led by the Southward Expansion Propaganda Group, which aimed at student cooperation with workers and peasants. In addition, the December 9 Movement had a great impact on students throughout the nation, as a student movement arose in every city. These provincial movements were spontaneous protests stimulated by the events in Peking. The student movement in Shanghai was markedly so, but it was overtaken by pro-Kuomintang rightist students and its main political line became the organization of the National Salvation Association. Thus the fate of its original goals was quite different from those of its counterpart in Peking. Yet, the leftist politics shown in the Southward Expansion Propaganda Movement created tension between student activists, and the average student, and so local government authorities took advantage of this chance to suppress this movement. So the sthdent movement was obliged to become dormant. However, by adopting a united front policy, the student movement recovered and came to play a role in the national united front. This policy, aimed at consolidating the student movement, consisted of forming a nation-wide student organization. Consequently there arose the Chinese Students' National Salvation Association, an organization that played a great part in forming the united front. Meanwhile the activities of the Southward Expansion Propaganda Group were taken over by the National Liberation Vanguard Group, which was very important in supporting the student movement on the grass-roots level. After the outbreak of the Anti-Japanese War it extended its activities in the provinces, playing a vital role also in strengthening the anti-Japanese National United Front and arousing local groups to participate in the effort. But, for this very reason, the student movement was suppressed by the Kuo-mintang government in August 1938 and was compelled to go into illegal underground activities. However, the student movement that had begun with the December 9 Movement not only proved to be the initiation of the Chinese People's Liberation Struggle. But also it proved to be a movement of enormous historical significance both for the formation and development of the anti-Japanese national united front and for the advancement of the unification of student groups with those of the workers and peasants.