1978 年 87 巻 12 号 p. 1677-1714,1798-
At Present an important theme in historical research of the Han dynasty is how the nature of the state's power in the Qin-Han Imperial Period known as personal rule was determined by two sets of production relations. That is, the production relations between the state and the peasantry 小農民 -production relations of the peasantry and the production relations of Powerful Clans versus domestic slaves and Jiazuomin 仮作民 -production relations of Powerful Clans. This article takes the production relations of the former as the dominating relations of production which have the realization of personal rule as a premise. Production relations of the latter are considered from the viewpoint of the regionality of the power of Powerful Clans that have been prescribed as production relations of a secondry nature by the former. An arrangement according to the Jun Xian 郡県 administrative divisions of the distribution of the surnames "Daxing 大姓" and "Haoxing 豪姓" recorded in the literature, and of the surnames that can be recognized as and presumed to be a continuing lineage in the Former and Later Han period, has revealed that there were three regional characteristics of Powerful Clans in the Han dynasty. First, Guandong 関東, Jianghuai 江淮, and Bashu 巴蜀) were the regions where the break up of communal society and the growth of Powerful Clans as great landowners was conspicuous. The growth of local Powerful Clans could not be confirmed in Guanzhong 関中 or the Jun 郡 on the border regions in the north and south. Powerful Clans in Guanzhong and the Jun on the northern border regions were moved to the Lingyi 陵巴 and national boundary districts situated in the channel irrigation regions as a link in the policy of suppressing Powerful Clans. Second, there was a concentration of Powerful Clans in the Old Xian 旧県 that orignated from Yi 巴 communal society in the Guan-dong 関東 and Jianghuai 江淮 regions where the growth of local Powerful Clans power was most marked. Third, there was a time difference between the growth of Powerful Clans in regional areas. It took place in the three regions in the following sequence Guandong, Jianghuai and then Bashu. In particular, attention should be paid to the second characteristic. That is to say, we cannot understand it as the growth of Powerful Clans from the disengagement of the peasantry which in turn came out of the dissolution of communal society. The management of the peasantry arose as the dominating relations of production in the New Xian 新県 which were established by the power of the state after the Warring States period. On the other hand, we should consider the Powerful Clans as secondary production relations in the Old Xian 旧県 that grew out of the disintegration of the Yi 巴 communal society.