1981 Volume 90 Issue 3 Pages 275-307,393-39
It is well known that the Nei-shih 内史 of Ch'in-Han 秦漢 was an official who dealt with the management of the capital. This is based upon two points. The first is that the Hanshu 漢書 which is one of the most important primary historical materials for understanding the official system in the era of Ch'in-Han, in the nineteenth volume in "Pai-kuan Kung-ch'ing Piao A" 百官公卿表 (上) says that the Nei-shih of Ch'in is an official "taking charge of the management of the capital." The second point is that the Nei-shih in the early Han era was really similar to that in Ch'in era. However, in December 1975, lots of bamboo strips (Chu-chien 竹簡), mostly judicial documents, were unearthed at Shui-hu-ti of Yun-meng prefecture in Hupei 湖北省雲夢県睡虎地, and they gave a surprisingly full account of some parts of the official system and local government organizations at that time, to say nothing of criminal law. Particularly, the articles on the Nei-shih which we come across in the book, show that its status was far beyond what we previously thought it to be, and that it occupied a very important position in controlling the finance of the Ch'in in the Chan-kuo 戦国 era. This means that it is the best primary historical material on a very important issue....how Chih-su nei-shih 治粟内史 and Shao-fu 少府, a financial organization in the Ch'in era, came into being. The conclusion of my paper is as follows : Nei-shih of Ch'in in the Chan-Kuo era had T'ai-ts'ang 太倉 and Ta-nei 大内 (called Tu-nei 都内, latar) as its subordinate officials, and its official duty was not only to govern the proper territory of Ch'in (so-called the land of Nei-shih) but to handle the finance of Ch'in. The above mentioned Nei-shih came to grasp so much power through handling finance that the T'ai-ts'ang and Ta-nei were separated from the Nei-shih by the reorganization of the official system after the unification, and Chih-su nei-shih was established based on it. On the other hand, the former Nei-shih, separated from T'ai-Ts'ang and Ta-nei, was confined in duty and territory to the so-called "Land of Nei-shih" in order to deal with the increasing population of the capital which was accelerated after the unification of the empire. As a result, the Nei-shih and Chih-su nei-shih were established.