1982 年 91 巻 1 号 p. 1-42,146-145
This is a study on Sogo System in mediaeval Japan, mainly focused on its functional change, of which little investigation has been done so far. Persuing this, I collected the documents issued by Sogo from the Enryaku period to the end of the Kamakura period, and carefully analysed their signatures. There were issued two types of documents by Sogo-Cho (牒) type and the other. Both of which were generally signed by the most of Sogo members in early days. As, however, they stopped to come to Sogo-sho (僧綱所) after arround the 9th century, the two Homu (法務) members were appointed to take the responsibility for the Buddhist administration. Since then, Sogo-sho became consisted of two Homu members and old Igishi (威儀師) and Jugishi (従儀師) Accordingly former Sogo members practically lost their importance in Sogo-sho. As several documents signed by two Homu members show, this system seems to have continued till the middle of the 12th century. During this period, however, Homu members were not always at Sogo-sho, so Igishi and Jugishi became called as Zaicho (在庁), and the superior of Igishi members was appointed as Sozaicho (惣在庁) to administer Sogo-sho as "Rusudokoro" (留守所). Under the control of Homu members, Sozaicho were involved in not only its traditional duties (such as presiding Buddhist services, and representing Sogo-sho) but also the general Buddhist administration, together with Kumon (公文), the head of Jugishi members. This is attested from documents issued by Sogo with signatures of both Sozaicho and Kumon together with Homu members after the middle of the 11th century. In the 12th century, Toji-Ichino-Choja (東寺一長者), one of Homu members, attained the real power of Homu, and all members of Sogo-sho were controled directly by Toji-Ichino-Choja. In this way the basic organization of the Buddist administration in mediaeval Japan seems to have been established.