1985 Volume 94 Issue 7 Pages 1133-1171,1284-
The present paper deals with the pomast'e system in Novgorod under Ivan the Terrible. It is the intention of the author to make clear what influence the policies of Ivan the Terrible had upon this system by investigating the changes which took place its structure. The process of those changes is: (1) In the first half of 1550's, the management of the pomest'e had worked well enough, but the wars, especially that one waged against Kazan, continued to mobilize the pomeschichiki. Peasants, on the other hand, were burdened with heavy taxes; and some of them even abandoned their land. (2) From the second half of 1550's to the first half of 1560's, various obligations were imposed on the peasantry as consequence of the outbreak of Livonian War. The War resulted in falling many fields into wasteland, (3) Up until the first half of 1570's, wasteland continued to increase. At the same time the dvory of peasants continued to be absorbed into the demesne and some hamlets. And in addition much of the wasteland was cultivated by the custom of noesdoin. Such actions should he regarded as expedients for avoiding the heavy taxes. In 1570's. such trends became more and more widespread. The new management system called the pomest'e, to which the evasion from the heavy taxes had given birth, was gradually taking root. In the meantime the Livonian War came to an end (1583) and Ivan the Terrible died (1584). In 1591 Boris Godunov brought forth a number of new feudal landpolicies. The measures called for demesne back to the land tax exemptions and the return of peasants which they had previously abandoned, It Is therefore safe to assume that Godunov's policies gave a new direction to the institution of serfdom.