1986 Volume 95 Issue 1 Pages 1-37,144-145
In this paper, the author tries to clarify the relationship between the general description in the Ryo 令 codes and the more detailed explanation in the Engi-shiki 延喜式 codes concerning maki, state managed pastures for breeding mainly equestrian horses. Then, in order to deduce the origins of the several forms of maki stipulated in the Engi-shiki codes, he describes the transition of those offices in the central government which administered maki. As a result, the author is able to offer the following hypothesis concerning the actual state of public pasture lands. 1)In the Engi-shiki codes, we find Shokoku-no-maki 諸国牧 (provincial pastures), Mimaki 御牧 (those under direct imperial control) and Kinto-no-maki 近都牧 (pastures in the capital vicinity). It also mentions the horses presented to the central government as tribute, which are Kunigai-no-uma 国飼馬 (horses bred in provinces), Tsunagigai-no-uma 繋飼馬 (horses raised on a tether) and horses from Mimaki. The tributary horses from Shokoku-no-maki were Tsunagigai-no-uma. In Kinto-no-maki the horses were not sired but rather were delivered from the province to the capital and raised. The system of Kunigai-no-uma required that provinces sent horses, which were usually bred there, to the capital on the demand of the central government. So it was similar to the system of horse tribute. 2)From the beginning of the Ryo system, the maki in the provinces near the capital sent the horses which were sired there to the central government in the form of Kunigai-no-uma ; and the maki in the provinces far from the capital presented horses in the form of Tsunagigai-no-uma from Shokoku-no-maki. Some of the former maki also took on a function similar to Kinto-no-maki by breeding horses from the latter maki. 3)Mimaki originated from the maki managed by the Uchi-no-umaya-no-tsukasa 内廐寮 (the government agency of horse breeding under the immediate control of the Emperor, established in 765-808 A.D.), and was the most recent form of the various forms of maki stipulated in the Engi-shiki codes. However, the way to establish Mimaki was to shift some of the maki which had already existed under direct imperial control. This was done under the influence of the political situation around the middle of the 8th century. Therefore, each of the maki did not go through any important changes except for the alteration of the government office which had jurisdiction over it. 4)These forms of maki were arranged and reorganized when management failures began to increase at the beginning of the 9th century. The various articles concerning maki in the Engi-shiki codes show the result of such arrangements and reorganizations.