史学雑誌
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
軍人首相内閣論 : 分類と時期区分
永井 和
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ジャーナル フリー

1987 年 96 巻 10 号 p. 1595-1618,1703-

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In this note the author attempts to classify the 44 Japanese Cabinets in the pre-war period from the first one headed by Ito Hirobumi to the Higashikuni Government of August-October 1945, according to the prime minister's military position. His conclusions may be summarized as follows. Japanese pre-war Cabinets can be classified into two categories. One is headed by a general or an admiral of the Army and Navy and the other is not. The former may be called 'Military Prime Minister Cabinet' (MPMC), and the latter a 'Civilian Prime Minister Cabinet'. Of the pre-war 44 Cabinets, 20 were MPMC's. The MPMC can also be divided into two sub-categories. In type A the prime minister was on active duty in the Army or Navy. In type B he was in the reserves or retired. According to an edict on army and navy officer position and service decreed in 1888, officers appointed to the civil service must have been discharged from military service. However, if the Emperor ordered or permitted by the special decree, a civil servant could remain in military active service. Type A is further divided into 'Yamagata Style', 'War and Surrender Cabinet' and 'Other'. The First and Second Yamagata, the First and Second Katsura, the First Yamamoto, the Terauchi and the Kato Tomosaburo Cabinets are all of the 'Yamagata Style'. The Tojo arid the first half of the Higashikuni Cabinets form the 'War and Surrender Cabinet Style'. 'Other' includes the first half of Kuroda Cabinet (before the prolamation of the 1888 edict). Type B contains 4 sub-groups. The first is 'Katsura-Tanaka Style' (a party cabinet but its Premier was a military general). The Third Katsura and the Tanaka Giichi Cabinets belong to this subgroup. The second is 'Elder Admiral Prime Minister Cabinet' consisting of the Second Yamamoto, the Saito, the Okada and the Suzuki Kantaro Cabinets. The third is 'Army Reserve General Prime Minister Cabinet' which includes the Hayashi, the Abe and the Koiso Cabinets. The Yonai and the latter half of Kuroda and the Higashikuni Cabinets can't be put into any group mentioned above, and therefore should be thought of as exceptions. Using the chronological distribution of the MPMC as an index, a new periodization scheme can be introduced into Japanese cabinet history. The first period is from the First Ito to the First Okuma Cabinet, during which the MPMC form is rarely seen. Its time share is below 25%. The second is from the Second Yamagata to the second Yamamoto Cabinet. In this period the MPMC, especially type A dominated the others. Its time share is 55.0% (type B's is 2.3%). It may be called 'the Age of Type A' or 'the Age of Yamagata Style'. The third is from the Kiyoura to the Inukai Cabinet. The MPMC's time share decreased to 26.0% during this interval. This period overlaps 'the Time of Party Government'. The last is from the Saito to the Higashikuni Cabinet. The MPMC is again dominant. The time share of type A is 21.1% and that of type B is 45.3%. Therefore it may be called 'the Age of Type B'.

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© 1987 公益財団法人 史学会
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