Journal of Japanese Society for Mastication Science and Health Promotion
Online ISSN : 1884-4448
Print ISSN : 0917-8090
ISSN-L : 0917-8090
Classification of Meal Forms Offered at Long-term Care Insurance Facilities
Actual Condition Survey of Long-term Care Insurance Facilities in Japan
Shigeru BEPPUHiroko EGAWAMinoru YAGIMasayuki KUROSEYoshiaki YAMADA
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2008 Volume 18 Issue 2 Pages 101-111


For people with mastication/swallowing disorders, meals that are cooked and prepared according to the severity of the disorder are important for improving and maintaining quality of life (QOL) and improving nutrition, but no standards have been devised in terms of meal forms. Here, a questionnaire survey on meal forms was conducted at 2000 long-term care insurance facilities covering all areas of Japan. The questionnaire divided staple dishes into “rice” “gruel” “blended gruel” “liquid meal (rice water, arrowroot gruel)”, “high-density liquid meal (tube feeding)” and “others” and side dishes into “cooked normally” “cooked to soften while maintaining original shape”, “cut into bite-sized pieces” “chopped finely into a grainy texture”. “blended to a smooth texture” “added egg, gelatin or agar and then heated or cooled to form desired size and consistency” and “others”. The results showed that staple dishes were classified into “rice” “gruel” “blended gruel” and “high-density liquid meal (tube feeding)” Side dishes were classified into the above-mentioned 6 forms and “boiled with arrowroot starch”. However, the number of meal forms varied among facilities, and classification standards for processed foods for nursing were not the same for main and side dishes. When investigating the classification of meal forms and mastication/swallowing disorders, the classification of mastication and swallowing disorders must first be investigated and then matched to the classifications of meal forms.

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