2008 年 1 巻 1 号 p. 31-43
People's daily livelihoods can be ensured in a sustainable way and opportunities for social participation secured when government social policy measures such as social security, tax systems and labor market regulations are closely articulated with institutions, including family, enterprise, and not-for-profit organizations and their practices. I refer to this mechanism as a whole as the "livelihood security system." Conversely, the dysfunction or reverse function of the livelihood security system engenders social exclusion. This paper argues that social exclusion in Japan is serious as an extra-legality related to social insurance schemes and labor market casualization, which have caused increasing income inequality and relative poverty. Youth and women are excluded both within and outside the labor market, while the casualization of employment is widely used by management to avoid the burden of social insurance premiums. And social insurance offices have not only tacitly permitted but actually encouraged employers to erase pension records, and unlawfully engaged in making "exemptions" from pension premium payments and "absentee registrations," in order to raise the contribution ratio. This indicates that the Social Insurance Agency, as an organization that is supposed to exercise jurisdiction over the pension scheme, was a leading party to extra-legal practices.