2019 Volume 3 Issue 3 Pages 222-228
Introduction: The purpose of this study is to investigate thoracic deformity correction and pulmonary function changes in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) five years or more after undergoing posterior spinal fusion with thoracoplasty for correction of a thoracic deformity.
Methods: Subjects were 57 patients with AIS who underwent posterior spinal fusion between 2004 and 2010. 24 patients who had undergone thoracoplasty at least five years earlier agreed to participate in this research. X-rays, pulmonary function tests, and thoracic cage computed tomography (CT) were performed, and the Scoliosis Research Society Outcomes Questionnaire (SRS-22) was administered. CT axial images were used at the apex of the main thoracic (MT) curve. Apical vertebral rotation was evaluated using rotation angle to the sagittal plane (RAsag). Thoracic deformities were evaluated using the rib hump index (RHi) and the posterior hemithoracic symmetry ratio (PHSr).
Results: There were no significant differences between the preoperative and the final observation forced vital capacity (FVC) or the preoperative and the final observation %FVC. The forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and %FEV1 were significantly improved at the final observation: FEV1 (preoperative: 1.88 L, final observation: 2.05 L, p = 0.045) and %FEV1 (preoperative: 57.1%, final observation: 66.2%, p = 0.001). FEV1/FVC was also significantly improved at the final observation (preoperative: 83.0%, final observation: 86.4%, p = 0.019). The peak expiratory flow (PEF) was significantly improved at the final observation (preoperative: 3.67 L/s, final observation: 4.38 L/s, p = 0.029). On the CT assessment for thoracic deformities, there were no significant changes in RAsag or RHi. PHSr was significantly increased at the final observation compared with the preoperative period.
Conclusions: With posterior spinal fusion in combination with thoracoplasty for AIS, although the correction of deformities was limited, the pulmonary function testing demonstrated the preservation of vital capacity (VC) and improvements in the forced expiratory volume in 1 s and expiratory flow.