2019 Volume 3 Issue 4 Pages 348-353
Introduction: This study aimed to determine impacts on walking ability of spinal deformity and imbalance as distinct from movement disorders in Parkinson's disease (PD).
Methods: Thirty-two patients (15 males, 17 females; mean age 72.5 years) were analyzed. Three, thirteen, eleven, and five were at Hoehn-Yahr stages I, II, III, and IV, respectively. In addition to various spinal imbalance and deformity classifications the following were assessed: Cobb angle (CA) for scoliosis, thoracic kyphosis (TK) at T2-12, thoracolumbar kyphosis (TLK) at T12-L2, lumbar lordosis (LL) at L1-S1, pelvic tilt (PT), pelvic incidence (PI), and sagittal vertical axis (SVA). The Timed Up and Go (TUG) test was used to measure walking ability. Patients were evaluated using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) part III, and bone mineral density (BMD) scans.
Results: Nineteen patients (59%) had spinal deformity and imbalance within the following classifications: thoracic scoliosis, 1; thoracic kyphosis, 2; lumbar scoliosis, 15; Pisa syndrome, 3; camptocormia, 2. Mean values were 20.0° CA for scoliosis, 42.3° TK, 14.8° TLK, 26.7° LL, 20.8° PT, 48.8° PI, and 66.4 mm SVA. The mean TUG score was 13.9s. The UPDRS III mean was 36.6±24.5 points. Mean BMD was 0.856 g/cm2 at lumbar L2-4 and 0.585 g/cm2 at the femoral neck. UPDRS part III (P<0.001), LL (P<0.05), and femoral neck BMD (P<0.05) significantly correlated to TUG test results.
Conclusions: Distinct from the movement disorders of PD (UPDRS III), loss of normal LL and loss of BMD at the femoral neck were shown to be correlated with diminished walking ability (TUG test) in PD patients. When UPDRS improved in response to L-dopa, walking ability improved. In addition to any PD-specific interventions that contribute to the maintenance of ambulation, interventions specific to the restoration of LL, as well as early treatment for osteoporosis may positively affect HRQOL in PD.