1988 年 26 巻 3 号 p. 241-265
This essay discusses the local administrative system linking the central government to village society. The first section presents the basic materials and points out issues in earlier studies concerning this subject. The second section examines the naming and distribution of each kind of unit. Generally speaking, there were only two lanks: the upper units like phủ, châu etc. and basic units like hươhng, giáp etc. Basic units were communes which had not been reorganized by the central government. Upper units were nothing more than honorary titles conferred on important and strong basic units. In such a simple system, complicated Chinese ideas about local administrative organization gave rise to irregular naming and calling of the units, some of which, for example, lộ, were invalid. The third section analyzes the functions of governors of châu and phủ. There was no distant difference between châu mục or thủ līnh, local chieftains recognized by the central government, and trị châu, a governor temporarily appointed, either in ethnicity or in non-bureaucratic functions. However, some strategic positions outside the Red River delta, especially Thanh Hóa, were governed by subordinate officials who had given royal service in the first half of the 12th century.
In short, the local administrative system under the Lý dynasty was similar to that of muǎng states in Thai society, with a “feudal” relationship between the upper and lower units and, may be, “bureaucratic” administration inside the basic communes. In the last stage of Lý period in Vietnam, however, the germs of the bureaucratic local administration completed in the 15th century can be found, both in the Red River delta, where higher and wider units were formed, and in Thanh Hóa, where “patrimonial bureaucracy” was realized.