The concentration of prostate specific antigen (PSA) in serum was measured in 20 brothers or sons in 10 families in which the father and son or brothers had prostate cancer using the E test TOSOH IIPA. The patients were between 32 and 70 years old with a mean age of 48.2 years. The PSA value was between 0.4 and 19.5 ng/ml with a mean value of 3.4 ng/ml. Five patients (25%) had PSA values exceeding the cut-off value of 4.0 ng/ml. After obtaining their consent, systematic prostate needle biopsy by transrectal ultrasonography was performed on 3 patients (15%). Prostate cancer was detected in all of them. Among them 2 patients were brothers, and since the other two brothers already had prostate cancer, all four brothers were confirmed to have prostate cancer. This is the first report of a familial prostate cancer in four brothers in Japan. In the western countries where the incidence of prostate cancer is higher than that in Japan, studies have been performed on the risk factors. Family history is one of the most important risk factors. In Japan, the incidence of prostate cancer is increasing rapidly. Moreover, patients with a prostate cancer family history are expected to increase. In such cases, prostate cancer screening should be performed aggressively from a young age.
1998 Tohoku University Medical Press