The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma has been rising in many countries, while esophageal squamous cell carcinoma has remained stable or even declined in the same populations over the identical periods. These differences in trends indicate that these cancer subtypes may have a different etiology, which may be caused by lifestyle factors such as alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. Therefore, a matched case-control study to clarify the risk factors of alcohol and tobacco intake on the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma was collected in Hebei Province of China. The life expectancy of the study area was around 70 years old. In the present study, 98 patients younger than 65 years who were diagnosed with esophageal adenocarcinoma and had initial surgeries (cases) were matched with 294 healthy adults (controls) at a ratio of 1:3 according to sex and age. We found the proportions of drinkers and smokers among cases were 48.0% and 60.2%, respectively, versus 21.2% and 43.5% among controls. Univariate conditional logistic regression analyses revealed that the odds ratios (ORs) showed a nearly monotonic increase for the duration of alcohol consumption and duration of tobacco smoking. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis indicated that only alcohol consumption was a significant risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma. Additional analysis of the combination of amount and duration of alcohol consumption indicated that heavy drinkers (> 30 ml/day) had significantly higher ORs, irrespective of the duration of alcohol consumption. In conclusion, heavy alcohol consumption increases the risk for esophageal adenocarcinoma independent of the duration of such consumption.
2011 Tohoku University Medical Press