2018 Volume 246 Issue 1 Pages 35-44
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), a superfamily of multifunctional enzymes, play an important role in the onset and progression of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, novel GST omega class (GSTO), consisting of GSTO1-1 and GSTO2-2 isoenzymes, has not been studied in RCC yet. Two coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) supposedly affect their functions: GSTO1*C419A (rs4925) causing alanine to aspartate substitution (*A140D) and GSTO2*A424G (rs156697) causing asparagine to aspartate substitution (*N142D), and have been associated with several neurodegenerative diseases and cancers. Functional relevance of yet another GSTO2 polymorphism, identified at the 5′ untranslated (5′UTR) gene region (GSTO2*A183G, rs2297235), has not been clearly discerned so far. Therefore, we aimed to assess the effect of specific GSTO1 and GSTO2 gene variants, independently and in interaction with established risk factors (smoking, obesity and hypertension) on the risk for the most aggressive RCC subtype, the clear cell RCC (ccRCC). Genotyping was performed in 239 ccRCC patients and 350 matched controls, while plasma levels of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a biomarker of oxidative DNA damage, were determined by ELISA. As a result, combined effect of all three variant genotypes exhibited almost 3-fold risk of RCC development. Additionally, this association was confirmed at the haplotype level [variant GSTO1*A/GSTO2*G (rs156697)/GSTO2*G (rs2297235) haplotype], suggesting a potential role of those variants in propensity to RCC. Regarding the gene-environment interactions, variant GSTO2*G (rs156697) homozygous smokers are at higher ccRCC risk. Association in terms of oxidative DNA damage was found for GSTO2 polymorphism in 5′UTR and 8-OHdG. In conclusion, the concomitance of GSTO polymorphisms may influence ccRCC risk.