In this paper, we analyzed individuals’ perceptions of the roles of intelligent machines and systems based on the results of a questionnaire survey conducted in 2015 and 2016 on artificial intelligence, robots, and other “intelligent machines and systems.” In conclusion, 1) human labor was not strongly supported for so-called public goods and services such as disaster prevention and military jobs, rather than leaving these tasks to machines. 2) In support of existing research, child-rearing was seen as women’s responsibility as in the present situation, considering that women and children benefit from the parenting experience. In addition, university graduates with high flexibility for social option and creative capacity are perceived to benefit from human-powered jobs, especially in tasks that require human responsibility or where the cost of implementing intelligent machines and systems would be expensive. Also, some tasks, such as music, are viewed as preferentially human tasks. 3) After taking into consideration endogenous in the regression, such as for child rearing and nursing care, overall, individuals perceived that childcare should not be left to machines, although nursing care was considered to possibly benefit from the use of machines.