2000 年 42 巻 4 号 p. 34-49
In the second half of the 19 th Century, Chilean agriculture became lucrative for the first time in history. A boom in the export market and an expansion of the domestic market made this possible - a phenomenon which continued to 1929 when the Great Depression broke out. The aim of this paper is to indicate the change of agricultural structure under the Chilean capitalist system in the second half of the 19 th Century and to analyze the transformation of the hacienda management and inquilino system paying special attention to the resulting regional differences in central Chile. Section I focuses on hacienda management. Observing how the agricultural structure changed during those years, brings to light the stark regional differences between developed regions and less developed regions. Section II focuses on the inquilino system. It is first pointed out that by the end of the 19 th Century, the inquilino system was transformed into a system similar to wage labor. Four case studies are presented to analyze the inquilino system more closely. This paper has two main conclusions. Chilean agriculture became capitalist due to the formation of markets and the rise of the agricultural commodity during the period under study. But essentially what really happened was the capitalist development of the landlord class, this is the first conclusion. These changes led to the polarization between developed and less developed regions. The four case studies exhibit the wide gaps of capitalist development between developed and less developed regions. The second conclusion is that it was during these years when different patterns of capitalist development in Chilean agriculture were established.