土地制度史学
Online ISSN : 2423-9070
Print ISSN : 0493-3567
ソ連邦における経済管理改革とその問題点 : コスイギン報告をめぐって
小野 一郎
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ジャーナル フリー

1966 年 8 巻 2 号 p. 40-53

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This article is devoted to the examination of the basic idea developed in the report of A. Kosygin at the Central Committee's Meeting of the Soviet Communist Party in September 1965. It contains an attempt to search through such examination for correct method of approach to the theoretical problems of socialist economy. Intended reform of the system of management of economy in the Soviet Union is aimed at drastic expansion of economic autonomy of individual state enterprises and decisive strengthening of mechanism of economic stimulation. Distinctive feature of the new system may be found in the assignment of keystone position to index of profit and system of direct contract between enterprises. Reform is to be reinforced by the replacement of territorial structure of management of industry with a new structure based on branch principle and also by changes in price-making policy. With its over-all and deeply economic character reform marks most outstanding turning point in the history of planned economy in the Soviet Union since 1930's. A. Kosygin's report thus constitutes real starting-point in the process of realization of new management policy as set forth at the 20th Congress and further in the Programme of the Soviet Communist Party. On the basis of Programme's strategy of peaceful coexistence and economic competition report puts forward the problem of enhancing efficiency of production as the central problem faced by Soviet economy. This idea is supplemented by the thesis that development of productive power in socialist society necessarily leads to more and more complete application of mechanism of economic stimulation. Consequently, in its attempt to ensure the enhancement of efficiency of production and the growth of productive power of society announced reform mainly depends on economic stimulation and commodity-money relations, liberalizing to a considerable extent the use of labour power and means of production by enterprises. In this context possibility of infringement of necessary proportions of national economy and appearance of other negative tendencies incompatible with the essential nature of planned socialist economy is not excluded. The basic idea of reform is closely linked with the conception that socialist state property on means of production is something perfect and absolute, and that under the over-all control of socialist property commodity-value categories are no longer rudiments of old society inherited from capitalism. At the same time this conception lies at the bottom of the fundamental thought contained in the Programme and report that transition from socialism to communism has to be ensured above all by creating productive power of communism. Socialist property on means of production, however, in itself contains rudiments of old society. It does not purify commodity-value categories from such rudiments and itself needs purification. Historical meaning of intended reform should therefore be studied first of all from the view-point of development and reconstruction of production relations of socialism, and this on the scale of entire world socialist system as an organic part of the movement of contemporary world history from capitalism to socialism.

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© 1966 政治経済学・経済史学会
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