2001 年 2001 巻 66 号 p. 17-36,L3
Kozu Senzaburo (1852-97) is known as one of the central figures of Ongaku-torishirabe-gakari (Institute of Music) in Tokyo, and also famous for his major writing, Ongaku-no-rigai (Interests of Music), which has been recognized as one of the earliest works of modern Japanese musicology. Quoting no less than four hundred and fifty documents, ranging from time-honored Japanese and Chinese books to the newest Western writings, this compilation shows us plenty of musical anecdotes and episodes taken from various places and periods in the world. Arguing fully the influences and effects of music on human nature, it established a solid basis in theory for the educational policies of the Institute. Although this writing has been examined within the cultural contexts in Japan and Asia, few scholars have argued it in relation to the Western musical thoughts. This article examines the following: (1) the sorts of Western documents Kozu quoted, (2) the reasons for his selection, and (3) the ways in which he appropriated them for his own purpose.
Born in Shinano, young Kozu cultivated himself within the circumstances of the Confucian tradition. He went up to Tokyo in 1869 and then studied English at private schools. When the new government determined to send young talents abroad to survey the educational systems in the modern nations, he was selected as one of members sent to the United States. Kozu seems to have been a student of the New York State Normal School at Albany from 1875 to 1877. There he learned the modern methods of artistic education such as vocal music and drawing, and gained knowledge of contemporary Western literatures on music, especially by British and American writers, and therefore established his own view on music, chiefly based on theories of music education in America (L. Mason), anthropology (Ch. Darwin) and comparative musicology (C. Engel and A. J. Ellis) in England. He is distinguished from the twentieth-century Japanese musicologists, who were mostly attracted by the German aesthetics of music.
Kozu's view on music fostered in his Albany years had a definitive effect on the policy of Torishirabe-gakari and subsequent music education in modern Japan. In 1881, he was appointed to one of the supervisors of Torishirabe-gakari, founded two years before. At the Institute, he taught English, translated foreign books on musical grammar and harmony and gave lectures on music theory and history. His first theoretical work appeared in Ongaku-torishirabe-seiseki-shinposho (Report on the Result of the Investigations Concerning Music), which is a collaborative work with Izawa Shuji, the head director of the Institute. It includes “Ongaku-enkaku-taiko (Outlines on the History of Music)” and “Meiji-sho-sentei-no-koto (On the Selection of National Anthem for the Meiji Era)”, both of which are brief but comprehensive. In the former the author argues, chiefly referring to C. Engel's An Introduction to the Study of National Music (1866), that the Western diatonic scale and the Eastern pentatonic scale both originate in the pentatonic scale of Ancient India, as the Indo-European languages do, and emphasizes that the effect and interests of music has universal values. Here, however, he altered Engel's original arguments to accommodate them into the so-called “eclectic” policy of the Institute. In the latter essay, while summarizing the history of national anthems in European countries, Kozu examines how we can make an effective song that attracts people's attention and make their temperament obedient to the government. This report can be regarded as an important step to his more elaborate plan of Rigai.
Ongaku-no-rigai (1891) consists of three parts with twenty-four volumes and three hundred fifty chapters. Each part shows, from the beginning, “Music and People, ” “Music and National Government” and