2020 Volume 63 Issue 5 Pages 245-250
Nanoscale observation of charge migration is crucial for understanding and controlling functional materials and devices. We developed tip-synchronized time-resolved electrostatic force microscopy. The analysis of cantilever motion provides the temporal resolution with the timescale of cantilever vibration cycle. The observation of sub-microsecond charge migration is achieved for photovoltaic bilayer and conductive polymer thin films by a movie with 0.3 microsecond frame step time resolution.