2001 年 121 巻 6 号 p. 433-439
Two formulations of 0.5% vancomycin hydrochloride (VM) eye drops (VM-B and VM-C eye drops) were prepared by dissolving commercial VM powder for injection with preserved water B (PWB) containing phosphate buffer and preserved water C (PWC) containing only antimicrobial preservative, respectively. The VM-B eye drops have neutral pH (about 6.3), and the VM-C eye drops acidic pH of about 3.5. The pharmaceutical examination of these eye drops was performed regarding its clinical application to MRSA eye infection. In an irritability test using a rabbit’s eye, the average number of winks after instillation of one drop of VM-B eye drops was 0.8 times/min and significantly smaller than that of VM-C eye drops (2.0 times/min). In dark storage at 4°C, no change of VM concentration in both eye drops was observed for 25 weeks after preparation and the mean residual concentrations as determined by the HPLC-UV (240 nm) method were constant over 90% for 8 weeks, of the initial oncentration. However, the residual VM concentration of VM-B eye drops under a room condition declined to 58% after 4 weeks and 20% after 8 weeks, and VM in light storage at 40°C was not detectable after 8 weeks. The drug concentration of VM-C eyey drops declined to 83% after 4 weeks and 74% after 8 weeks under a room condition, and to 46% after 4 weeks and 20% after 8 weeks under light storage at 40°C. Under these storage conditions, the precipitation of VM related crystals was observed in both the eye drops when the residual percentage of VM was lower than 80%. Judging from HPLC chromatograms of a solution of the precipitated crystals, it was suggested that this crystal was degradation products of VM. The VM-B eye drops was applied to a patient with MRSA eye infection, because other medication was not effective. After continuous instillation of a drop per times every hour to both eyes, MRSA in corneal culture turned out negative after one week, and the clinical condition was remarkably improved. On the basis of the result of eye-irritability, VM-B eye drops with neutral pH was suggested to be superior to acidic VM-C eye drops from a safety point of view. It was also indicated that VM-B eye drops can be effectively used for 8 weeks under dark storage at 4°C for MRSA eye infection, which is a useful piece information for the proper usage of the VM eye drops.