Our series of studies aimed to examine the possibility of interactions between prescription drugs and over-the-counter (OTC) drugs by monitoring plasma drug concentrations in rats. When a levodopa preparation indicated for patients with Parkinson's disease was administered in combination with Takeda Kampo Ichoyaku K-matsu (A), Taisho Kampo Ichoyaku (B), or Kanebo Kampo Ichoyaku H(C), which are OTC kampo medicines for upset stomach, the plasma levodopa concentration-time curves were shifted downward and the AUC for levodopa was significantly lowered. These results indicate that there may be some interactions between the levodopa preparation and these OTC kampo medicines when ingested together, which leads to a reduction in the bioavailability of levodopa. On the other hand, concomitant administration of the levodopa preparation with Takeda Kampo Ichoyaku A-matsu (D) did not alter any of the pharmacokinetic parameters for levodopa. According to the package inserts for the OTC kampo medicines, A, B and C, but not D, contain metallic additives, such as aluminum silicate and magnesium stearate. In addition, combination with a kampo basis of D (Koshaheiisan-ka-shakuyaku) showed no detectable change in levodopa bioavailability. From these results, it was concluded that metallic additives may play an essential role in generating the drug-interaction between levodopa preparation and OTC kampo medicine for upset stomach.
2006 by the PHARMACEUTICAL SOCIETY OF JAPAN