131 巻 (2011) 2 号 p. 247-253
This review summarizes genetic factors predisposed to statin-induced rhabdomyolysis. The first genetic risk factor of statin myopathy uncovered by genome-wide analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms was the common variant of SLCO1B1 gene. Analysis of 30000 genetic markers in 85 patients with myopathy induced by high-dose simvastatin showed a strong association with 521T>C polymorphism of SLCO1B1. Another study also showed that this variant of SLCO1B1 has a significant association with myopathy in patients taking pravastatin or atorvastatin although the number of patients analyzed was limited. In addition to SLCO1B1, recent studies suggested that variants of genes encoding transporters (ABCG2 and ABCB1) and metabolic enzymes (CYP2C8 and UGT1A3) involved in the disposition of statins, and those involved in the metabolic muscle disease (glycogen storage disorders, carnitine palmitoyl-2 deficiency and myoadenylate deaminase deficiency) are also risk factors of statin-induced myopathy. These genetic factors may provide predisposition testing for statin-induced rhabdomyolysis.