2013 年 133 巻 5 号 p. 575-585
We are studying the medicinal synthetic chemistry of biomolecular component mimics such as carbohydrates, nucleosides, amino acids, and peptides. In this review, the synthesis and biological activities of iminosugars as carbohydrate mimics are discussed. Glycosidases and glycosyltransferases are involved in a wide range of anabolic and catabolic process, including digestion, the lysosomal catabolism of glycoconjugates, glycoprotein biosynthesis. Hence, modifying or blocking these processes in vivo using inhibitors is a topic of great interest from the therapeutic point of view. Iminosugars are sugars in which the endocyclic oxygen is replaced by a basic nitrogen atom. They are regarded as transition state mimics in certain types of enzyme reactions. This makes the field of iminosugars as carbohydrate mimics an exciting area of research. We synthesized all of the stereoisomers of polyhydroxypiperidines such as fagomine, 1-deoxynojirimycine, and isofagomine. In addition, their both enantiomers, as substrates for a variety of glycosidases were evaluated. Secondly, the asymmetric synthesis of α-1-C-alkyl-arabinoiminofuranoses was achieved by asymmetric allylic alkylation, RCM, and Negishi cross coupling as key reactions. Surprisingly, the L-forms showed a quite potent inhibitory activity toward rat intestinal maltase, while the activities of the D-forms were much weaker. Some of the prepared L-forms showed potent inhibitory activities towards intestinal maltase, with IC50 values comparable to those of commercial drugs such as acarbose, voglibose, and miglitol, which are used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Among them, the inhibitory activity towards intestinal sucrase of α-1-C-L-butylarabinoiminofuranose was quite strong towards intestinal sucrase compared to the above commercial drugs.