2019 年 139 巻 4 号 p. 497-503
Tissue barriers contribute to the maintenance of homeostasis in the body, and tissue barrier dysfunction presents a risk factor for a variety of diseases. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a major tissue barrier acting as a static barrier and dynamic interface that plays an important role in the maintenance of central nervous system homeostasis. We show the functional characterization of the brain-to-blood efflux transport system of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) across the BBB. We found that activated vitamin D3 may be a candidate agent for modulating the Aβ clearance across the BBB. Cerebral creatine deficiency syndromes are caused by loss-of-function mutations in the creatine transporter (CRT; SLC6A8), which transports creatine at the BBB. We found that functional impairment of CRT due to a G561R mutation resulted in incomplete N-linked glycosylation due to misfolding during protein maturation, leading to impaired creatine transport activity at the BBB. To develop a delivery system for biomedicine across the tissue barrier, we established a screening system to identify cell-penetrating peptides by a combination of in vitro cell permeability screening assays and phage display technology. Using this system, we identified cyclic hepta-peptides that are able to facilitate intestinal absorption of phages in vitro and in vivo, which are promising candidates as a carrier for macromolecular biomedicines. In conclusion, these studies focusing on the dynamic interface of tissue barriers will contribute to knowledge on disease pathogenesis as well as the development of a targeted biomedicine delivery system.