In most mammalian species, adult neurogenesis appears to occur only in the olfactory bulb and hippocampal dentate gyrus, where neural stem/progenitor cells exist to create new neurons. The discovery of multi-potential neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs) in the adult brain has precipitated a novel therapeutic strategy for harnessing these endogenous cells to aid in recovery from neurodegenerative disorders. During neurodegeneration, a plethora of endogenous factors, including cytokines, chemokines, neurotransmitters, blood-derived factors, and reactive oxygen species, are released by the activation of resident microglia, astrocytes, and infiltrating peripheral macrophages. It is interesting that these endogenous factors affect the proliferation, migration, differentiation, and survival of newly generated cells involved in the incorporation of newly generated neurons into the brain's circuitry. The unique profile of these endogenous factors can vary the degree of neuroregeneration after neurodegeneration. We show that adult neurogenesis-activating signals are regulated by endogenous factors produced during neurodegeneration.