Oral molecular-targeted agents are used clinically for the treatment of various types of cancer. However, even when treatment is started at the dosage indicated in the medical package insert, we have experienced many cases in which treatment had to be stopped early owing to the occurrence of serious side effects or an insufficient therapeutic effect. In recent years, a wide range of studies has been conducted on the therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of oral molecular-targeted therapeutic agents to prevent serious side effects and maximize the therapeutic effect. In Japan, the TDM of imatinib has been covered by insurance since 2012, and the TDM of sunitinib has been covered since 2018. In contrast, tyrosine kinase inhibitors may have severe side effects, but their TDM is not covered by medical insurance. We aimed to identify a safe, highly effective chemotherapy regimen based on scientific evidence gathered from Japanese patients. We examined the relationship between the plasma concentration of drugs and clinical findings, such as side effects and treatment effects, at our hospital. In this symposium review, we introduce our results based on the treatment of patients with renal cell carcinoma.