Humans are exposed to various xenobiotic electrophiles on a daily basis. Electrophiles form covalent adducts with nucleophilic residues of proteins. Redox signaling, which consists of effector molecules (e.g., kinases and transcription factors) and redox sensor proteins with low pKa cysteine residues, is involved in cell survival, cell proliferation, quality control of cellular proteins and oxidative stress response. Herein, we showed that at a low dose, xenobiotic electrophiles selectively modified redox sensor proteins through covalent modification of their reactive thiols, resulting in activation of a variety of redox signaling pathways. However, increasing the dose of xenobiotic electrophiles caused non-selective and extensive modification of cellular proteins involved in toxicity. Of interest, reactive sulfur species (RSS), such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), cysteine persulfide (CysSSH), glutathione persulfide (GSSH) and even synthetic polysulfide (e.g., Na2S4), readily captured xenobiotic electrophiles, forming their sulfur adducts, which was associated with inactivation of the electrophiles. Our findings suggest that an adaptive response through redox signaling activation and RSS-mediated electrophile capturing is involved in the regulation of electrophilic stress.