2019 Volume 62 Issue 2 Pages 169-181
Intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder are neurodevelopmental disorders that emerge during the developmental period. A significant barrier that impedes the social adaptation of individuals with these disorders is the exhibition of problem behaviors, such as self-injurious, stereotyped, and aggressive/destructive behaviors. In recent years, these problem behaviors have been collectively referred to as “challenging behavior,” in accordance with the contention that they result from an interaction between the individual and his or her social environment. Evidence-based psychosocial interventions that adopt the functional approach to treating challenging behavior are increasing. However, in order to effectively implement such interventions in educational settings and welfare facilities, it is essential to develop staff training programs and usable psychometric assessments. Accordingly, a brief overview of research studies on challenging behavior that have been conducted in Japan, as well as the various support systems that are available to individuals who exhibit challenging behavior, are presented in this article. The discussion makes it apparent that, in order to improve treatment systems in Japan that are aimed at addressing challenging behavior, it is necessary to establish not only better staff training programs, but also reliable and valid assessments measuring challenging behavior that can be readily used by teachers and parents. On the basis of this discussion, it is proposed that technological advancements must be applied to psychosocial approaches in the study of problem behaviors, in order to develop assessment system using software applications and automatic measurement system of target behaviors using sensing technology.