Yonago Acta Medica
Online ISSN : 1346-8049
ISSN-L : 0513-5710
Review Article
Regulatory Mechanism of SNAP23 in Phagosome Formation and Maturation
Kiyotaka HatsuzawaChiye Sakurai
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2020 Volume 63 Issue 3 Pages 135-145


Synaptosomal associated protein of 23 kDa (SNAP23), a plasma membrane-localized soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE), is a ubiquitously expressed protein that is generally involved in fusion of the plasma membrane and secretory or endosomal recycling vesicles during several types of exocytosis. SNAP23 is expressed in phagocytes, such as neutrophils, macrophages, and dendritic cells, and functions in both exocytosis and phagocytosis. This review focuses on the function of SNAP23 in immunoglobulin G Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis by macrophages. SNAP23 and its partner SNAREs mediate fusion of the plasma membrane with intracellular organelles or vesicles to form phagosomes as well as the fusion of phagosomes with endosomes or lysosomes to induce phagosome maturation, characterized by reactive oxygen species production and acidification. During these processes, SNAP23 function is regulated by phosphorylation. In addition, microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B light chain 3 (LC3)-associated phagocytosis, which tightly promotes or suppresses phagosome maturation depending on the foreign target, requires SNAP23 function. SNAP23 that is enriched on the phagosome membrane during LC3-associated phagocytosis may be phosphorylated or dephosphorylated, thereby enhancing or inhibiting subsequent phagosome maturation, respectively. These findings have increased our understanding of the SNAP23-associated membrane trafficking mechanism in phagocytes, which has important implications for microbial pathogenesis and innate and adaptive immune responses.

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© 2020 Tottori University Medical Press
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