2021 年 64 巻 1 号 p. 57-66
Background Insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling plays an important role in prenatal and postnatal growth and glucose metabolism. Both small-for-gestational age (SGA) and preterm infants have abnormal growth and glucose metabolism. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Recently, we showed that term SGA infants have abnormal insulin/IGF signaling in cord blood. In this study, we examined whether preterm infants show similar aberrations in cord blood insulin/IGF signaling.
Methods A total of 41 preterm cord blood samples were collected. Blood glucose, insulin, IGF-1, and C-peptide concentrations were measured, and mRNA expression of IGF1R, INSR, IRS1, IRS2, and SLC2A4 (i.e., GLUT4) was analyzed by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR.
Results This study included 34 appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) and 7 SGA preterm neonates. No hyperinsulinemia or any differences in IGF1R or INSR mRNA expression were detected between the two groups. However, GLUT4 mRNA levels were increased in preterm SGA. Moreover, the expression level in hypoglycemic preterm SGA was significantly higher than that in hypoglycemic preterm AGA. IRS2 mRNA expression did not show a statistically significant difference between preterm SGA and AGA neonates.
Conclusion SGA preterm birth does not induce hyperinsulinemia; however, it modifies insulin/IGF signaling components such as GLUT4 in umbilical cord blood. Our study suggests that prematurity or adaptation to malnutrition alters the insulin/IGF signaling pathway.