Yonago Acta Medica
Online ISSN : 1346-8049
ISSN-L : 0513-5710
Original Article
Development of a Reflective Ability Scale for Clinical Nurses
Akiko NishimotoChika TanimuraReiko OkudaMika Fukada
Author information

2021 Volume 64 Issue 3 Pages 303-314


Background Enhancement of reflective ability leads to improved nursing practice and individual growth. This study aimed to develop a reliable, validated scale that can effectively assess the reflective ability of clinical nurses.

Methods Study participants were 1,872 nurses. We developed an anonymous self-administered questionnaire consisting of 33 original scale items and used it to conduct a survey. The scale was developed based on a construct validity study using item analysis, exploratory factor analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis. Reliability was estimated with Cronbach’s α values. Criterion-related validity was assessed using Pearson’s correlation analysis.

Results There were 1,292 responses (response rate, 69.0%). Responses from 1,262 subjects with no missing data were analyzed (valid response rate, 97.7%). Based on the item analysis and exploratory factor analysis, we developed a trial scale model with 3 factors and 25 items. We named the first factor (Factor 1) “Recall Their Own Nursing Practice,” the second factor (Factor 2) “Reflect on Their Own Nursing Practice” and the third factor (Factor 3) “Expand Their Own Nursing Practice”. This model was modified based on modification indices from the confirmatory factor analysis. A model with 3 factors and 19 items was developed. It had acceptable fit indices (goodness of fit index = 0.914; adjusted goodness of fit index = 0.890; comparative fit index = 0.949; root mean square error of approximation = 0.070). Cronbach’s α coefficients were 0.962 for all scale items, 0.922 for Factor 1, 0.918 for Factor 2, and 0.885 for Factor 3. The correlation coefficient between the model and the Professional Identity Scale of Nurses was 0.506 (P < 0.01).

Conclusion We developed a reflective ability scale consisting of 3 factors and 19 items. We demonstrated its construct validity, reliability, and criterion-related validity. This scale can effectively assess the reflective ability of nurses.

Content from these authors
© 2021 Tottori University Medical Press
Previous article Next article