2018 Volume 71 Issue 2 Pages 152-154
Measles is a highly contagious infection caused by the measles virus (MV). This study performed long-term surveillance in order to survey the prevalence of MV. A total of 417 patients diagnosed with or suspected of having measles were tested for MV between January 2007 and December 2016 in Osaka City, Japan. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-based testing of clinical specimens showed that 54 patients (12.9%) were MV-positive. An MV epidemic occurred in 2007, in which all detected MV strains were genotype D5, an epidemic strain in Japan at that time. The detected wild-type MV strains in sporadic or outbreak-associated cases since 2011 included genotypes D4, D8, B3, and H1. Three vaccine strains (all genotype A) were also detected. Children ＜10 years of age accounted for 90.0% of the MV-positive patients in 2007. In contrast, adults (≥ 20 years of age) accounted for the majority of MV-positive cases since 2011, as follows: 100%, 50%, 71.4%, 100%, and 87.5% of cases in 2011, 2013, 2014, 2015, and 2016, respectively. The recent high rate of two-dose MV vaccination coverage among children in Japan may have contributed to the reduced risk of MV infection and onset of measles in young persons.