2014 年 9 巻 p. 1-16
The purpose of this paper is to clarify coloring or "nurie" and its instruction at kindergartens in the Showa Pre-War Era (1926-1937) by analyzing coloring books and related articles by Sozo Kurahash and Fumi Oikawa. Coloring books for kindergarten children were published mainly to cultivate muscle coordination, concentration and color distribution by the Japan Kindergarten Association as a result of collaborative investigations of Kurahashi and Oikawa. As the demand for the coloring books increased, multiple revisions of the texts were published, and they eventually spread throughout the nation. According to Kurahashi, coloring afforded two pleasures to young children: a creative pleasure of coloring freely, and an imitative pleasure of coloring objects or models. Teachers in the Kobe kindergarten reported that coloring promoted children's spontaneity and developed color arrangement and technical free drawing skills. Colored pencil were considered to be more suitable than crayons for coloring carefully within the lines. It should be noted that coloring in kindergartens was performed not only independent of handicrafts but also comprehensively as project activities, such as "playing shop". Although coloring was often criticized for stifling children's creativity, Kurahashi argued that the critics confused free drawing with coloring. Teachers in the kindergarten attached to Tokyo Women's Higher Normal School denied any harmful effects of coloring on free drawing.