2014 年 9 巻 p. 77-91
This paper is based on the third proposal of the Symposium entitled "The historical examination of Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) reforms in foreign countries," which was held at the 9th Annual Meeting of the Society for the Historical Studies of Early Childhood Education and Care in Japan (30 Nov. 2013, Aoyama Gakuin Women's Junior College). This paper gives an overview of the history of the ECCE system in three Russias from the Mid-19th Century to the Beginning of the 21st Century: the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union, and Russian Federation. The results of the analysis of the ECCE system in the Russian Federation in particular reveal two points. One is three areas of comparison: the introduction of the free ECCE system, the location of the ECCE institutions in the whole school system, and the improvement of the quality of ECCE. These areas are inseparably linked to the ECCE reforms of the Russian Federation. The ECCE system during the Russian Revolution in the early 20th century began to get close to realizing its goal after about a century. The other point is that the social positioning of the ECCE institutions is changing from emphasizing welfare facilities, which aims to "simultaneously guarantee the development of the child and labor rights of working mothers" of the Soviet period to placing emphasis on educational institutions for young children, especially 5-year-old children.