2009 年 61 巻 Supplement 号 p. 403-413
We review the recent researches of numerical simulations on faulting, which is interpreted in this paper as the evolution of the state of the fault plane and the evolution of fault structure. The theme includes the fault constitutive (friction) law, the properties of the gauge particles, the initial phase of the rupture, the dynamic rupture process, the interaction of the fault segments, the fault zone dynamics, and so on. Many numerical methods have been developed : boundary integral equation methods (BIEM), finite difference methods (FDM), finite or spectral element methods (FEM, SEM) as well as distinct element methods (DEM), discrete element methods (again DEM) or lattice solid models (LSM). The fault dynamics should be solved as a complex non-linear system, which shows multiple hierarchical structures on its property and behavior. The researches have progressively advanced since the 1990’s both numerically and physically thanks to high performance computing environments. The interaction at small scales is modeled to provide a large scale property of the fault. The dynamic rupture has been actively studied especially for the effect on the fault geometry evolution or due to the existed fault structure. The (quasi-)static and the initial processes of the fault movement have been explored in a seismic cycle. The effect of fluid or heat has been taken into account in the mechanics. All these efforts help us to understand the phenomena and the unified understanding (simulation) over different spatio-temporal scales is more and more expected.