2011 年 64 巻 1 号 p. 47-62
This report reviews various studies on atmospheric pressure waves that have been generated from large earthquakes, tsunamis, and large-scale volcanic eruptions. These waves described here include low-frequency acoustic and gravity waves (0.0008∼0.0166 Hz or its period 1∼20 min) and high to medium frequency (› 0.0166 Hz or its period ‹ 1 min) infrasonic air-waves. The low-frequency acoustic-gravity waves came from coseismic vertical ground deformation associated with two megathrust earthquakes, and sometimes from other large earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, which propagated to more than several thousand kilometers through the lower to part of the upper atmosphere. The waves that reached the upper atmosphere could cause traveling ionospheric disturbances and perturbations of total electron content. The higher frequency infrasounds also have often been observed after large earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, which traveled as air-waves propagating directly from the source, and also as air-waves coupled with traveling seismic Rayleigh waves. Small atmospheric perturbations have also been detected during propagation of tsunami waves caused secondarily by large submarine earthquakes. Theoretical waveform modeling has been made in some of the above cases, incorporating a realistic atmospheric temperature structure. It is expected that more detailed information about the source process of large earthquakes and volcanic eruptions could be extracted through the analysis of the waveforms recorded at a number of stations, including their maximum amplitudes, wave frequencies, duration times, directions of wave approach, and phase and group velocities.