The Journal for the Association of Art Education
Online ISSN : 2424-2497
Print ISSN : 0917-771X
ISSN-L : 0917-771X
Volume 39
Showing 1-44 articles out of 44 articles from the selected issue
  • 2018 Volume 39 Pages Cover1-
    Published: 2018
    Released: April 02, 2020
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  • 2018 Volume 39 Pages App1-
    Published: 2018
    Released: April 02, 2020
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  • 2018 Volume 39 Pages i-iv
    Published: 2018
    Released: April 02, 2020
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  • Acquisition of Expression Methods by Kindergartners and Elementary school Children
    Hiroyuki ABE
    2018 Volume 39 Pages 1-13
    Published: 2018
    Released: April 02, 2020
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    This study deduces the methods of expression of spatial awareness over a six-year period in elementary school using drawings of meals. This was presented in volume 35 (2014.3) of an academic journal. It was demonstrated that children acquire independent expressions through interaction with others. Here, we examine children’s acquisition of methods of expression and how they learn about what is expressed in the environment, in addition to the conditions that enable the expression of their qualities and skills. Using interpretations of works and videos of students in kindergarten and the lower grades of elementary school, we found that the children learn methods of expression during their learning process. 1. Kindergartners and lower grade elementary school children incorporate information about people and things around them, meeting new challenges with their knowledge and skills, and investigating new activities to acquire new knowledge and skills. 2. The acquisition of knowledge and skills specific to arts subjects occurs in arts and crafts. It is important to determine the relationship between knowledge and skills, as demonstrated in the goals of the new course of study, and teach knowledge and skills together, rather than teaching each separately.
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  • Honami ARIHARA, Nobuko HAGIUDA, Motohiro KOZAWA, Ken YAGETA
    2018 Volume 39 Pages 15-25
    Published: 2018
    Released: April 02, 2020
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    During this research, we discussed points to be noted when teaching art and handicrafts. We conducted a questionnaire to evaluate children’s paintings using the SD method to fulfill our research objectives. Respondents to this survey were experts in art education. We examined respondents’ answers by conducting a regression analysis and classifying and comparing the profiles of each drawing created, based on the answers to the survey. As a result, evaluations by experts were similar overall. However, when discarding the items based on the features of drawings that were easy to judge, it turned out that the responses were scattered. Therefore, the “degree of evaluation criteria must be clarified” in art and handicrafts. Furthermore, we must consider methods of evaluation with a new structure to recognize children’s diversity of expression and appreciate their creativity.
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  • Yuki ANZAI, Tomoki HIRANO, Sayuri YAMADA, Takayuki SHIOSE
    2018 Volume 39 Pages 27-38
    Published: 2018
    Released: April 02, 2020
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    This study clarified the mechanisms involved in deepening the appreciation of works of art when in conversation with a visually impaired person as a partner. By conducting an interactive appreciation with and acting as a sub-navigator for a visually impaired person, and then analyzing the utterance data, it became clear that precise verbalizations related to the art work were motivated by the lack of access to visual information, and accordingly, a precise observation of the works was encouraged. Furthermore, when the information was described in this manner, it became clear that repeated simple questions asked by the visually impaired person shook the premise of the interpretation of the work, leading to a new way of seeing the work. In addition, as a result of the study, it was suggested that when implementing art appreciation with the visually impaired as interaction partners, it is important to focus on selecting a work of art beforehand. It should be a work which is easy to describe through observation and interaction so as to ensure sufficient time for appreciation of the work. Moreover, descriptive methods should be devised that enable one to navigate art appreciation without focusing too much on the details of the work.
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  • Difficulties Encountered When Teaching in Different Types of School
    Satoshi IKEDA, Makiko KODAMA
    2018 Volume 39 Pages 39-49
    Published: 2018
    Released: April 02, 2020
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    The purpose of this research was to clarify the different difficulties encountered when teaching art in five types of special needs schools (visual, auditory, physically-handicapped, intellectual, and sickly weakness). Our survey analyzed over 600 head-art-teachers who worked at special needs schools in Japan. The evaluation scores of five schools were calculated for 32 question items, and an analysis of variance by school type was conducted. The analysis revealed that there was a significant difference in difficulty between auditory special needs schools and other school types. The physically-handicapped special needs school encountered difficulties in all areas of teaching, yet it became clear that the teachers in auditory special needs schools did not encounter much difficulty when teaching art.
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  • From the Perspective of the Relationship Between Art and Place
    Hiroya ICHIKAWA
    2018 Volume 39 Pages 51-63
    Published: 2018
    Released: April 02, 2020
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    The purpose of this study was to clarify the theoretical background of Community-Based Art Education that focuses on the community in contemporary art. The technical term community-specific, which is used in “One Place After Another” written by Miwon Kwon, is a key concept explored in this study. The term “site-specific”, which is often employed to criticize public art, refers to the visual relationship between works of art and their surroundings. In contrast, “community-specific” art practices are based on conversations with participants. Opening a creative space is an effective method to realize this concept, which involves an extension of daily life. People who have similar interests gather in such places and construct a social network. Accordingly, local communities are reconstructed, and an alternative community is established. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the significance of the complex methodology employed to establish a creative community that includes both the artist who initiates place-making, and the networking that is disseminated from that place.
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  • A Comparative Analysis of Art, Arithmetic, and Social Studies Lessons
    Yoshiichi OIZUMI
    2018 Volume 39 Pages 65-78
    Published: 2018
    Released: April 02, 2020
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    This is a continuing study of utterances of the teacher in arts and crafts classes. I clarified the characteristics of arts and crafts classes by comparing the utterances of an elementary school teacher in arts and crafts classes, social studies, and arithmetic classes. At first, I analyzed the appearance of the utterance mainly as a third educational language. Next, I performed an episodic analysis of the characteristic utterance. In addition, I performed a text mining analysis. Thus, I found that an interest in the learning activities of the child, the independent will of the child, and the close relationship with the intentional characteristics of the teacher, were characteristic of arts and crafts classes. An examination of the artistic viewpoint and way of thinking in relation to the utterance of the class teacher can reveal how to conduct a class on the basis of these characteristics.
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  • Development, Practice, Clarification, and Systematization of Art Class Learning Content in Junior High School
    Chie OGURA
    2018 Volume 39 Pages 79-88
    Published: 2018
    Released: April 02, 2020
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    The paper aims to demonstrate the educational possibilities of the “Art Card” which the author developed and used. The author is an art teacher in junior high school and recognized that students having less time to spend on the subject led to a vague idea of learning contents. The clarification of learning contents comprised the systematization of four dimensions of art education; ideas, technique, expression, and appreciation. 24 systematic exercises using minimum materials called “Art Cards” were developed. The features of the “Art Card” included 1 learning element per card, 1 hour for completion of the exercise, a postcard size, the attractive name of materials, and card ring-binder filing. The practice of using the “Art Card” helped all students learn and understand from art, and enhanced their motivation and achievement through the visualization of diverse learning activities.
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  • Art Education Practice Has Three Strata; Gift Exchange, Mutual Response, and Pure Gift
    Kazuo KANEKO
    2018 Volume 39 Pages 89-100
    Published: 2018
    Released: April 02, 2020
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    This paper aims to construct a science of art education using gift exchange systems theory, which aims to overcome the over-humanistic discourse on art education in Japan following World WarII. The author defines the science of art education as referring to interrelations between practices, reflective propositions, experience propositions, reflective studies, and empirical studies. The author reveals that art education practice consists of three strata; the formality of gift exchange, the practicality of mutual response, and the essential nature of pure gift. Finally, the maturation of art education and the path leading to empirical studies of art education are discussed.
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  • Verification of Lessons Using Sound Logo Production
    Mitsuru KINJO, Shin CHINA
    2018 Volume 39 Pages 101-112
    Published: 2018
    Released: April 02, 2020
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    This paper deals with the development of audible teaching material conducted in the design department of a Technical High School. Learning using audio aids in the classroom is important in design. However, there is always a shortage of adequate learning time, teaching materials, and supervising professors. In the past, we developed teaching materials for the 2nd graders “DTM” and for the 3rd graders “Movie.” However, there was no content adapted for the 1st grade. Therefore, we created teaching materials in the form of e-books for the 1st graders. As a result, interest in using audio aids in the classroom was aroused and knowledge of audio materials and production techniques was improved.
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  • Masahito KUDOU
    2018 Volume 39 Pages 113-125
    Published: 2018
    Released: April 02, 2020
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    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that offering remote classes using ICT lectures is effective. We have to provide a high standard of education everywhere, based on the principle of equal educational opportunity, even if the declining birth rate is accelerating. I think we can guarantee the high quality of art classes using remote lectures even in isolated areas such as remote islands. Such classes can foster a rich fund of students’ aesthetic sensitivities. In Hokkaido, the decline of the population is progressing more rapidly than in other prefectures. It is difficult to maintain high quality art classes in places where there are no teachers with a license to teach art. In this essay, I promoted high standard art classes by using remote ICT lectures posted by a teacher with a license to teach art. I also inspected whether remote lectures given in an island junior high school were effective, to ascertain whether we should introduce remote lectures with ICT. As a result, I proved that students can acquire qualities and abilities through ICT- based high quality art classes through teaching them art appreciation.
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  • A Questionnaire Survey of Teachers in K City, Ibaraki
    Akira KOUYAMA
    2018 Volume 39 Pages 127-140
    Published: 2018
    Released: April 02, 2020
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    This research project focused on the continuity and connectivity of compulsory education, by examining the potential for collaborative art education between elementary and junior high schools. This paper is the second report of the research project, and considers the issues involved in continuing education through an analysis of the teaching of arts and crafts classes in elementary and junior high schools in K City, Ibaraki Prefecture. A questionnaire survey was conducted with 214 elementary and junior high school teachers. The survey revealed that elementary and junior high school teachers have different attitudes toward teaching, therefore the efforts necessary to promote collaboration and deepen the mutual understanding of art education between teachers was considered. As a result, this research indicated that developing collaborative education through the vision of lifelong learning and the developmental perspective of art education, suggests that the joint training of teachers across the transition of classes from junior high school to elementary school would lead to a deeper mutual understanding among teachers.
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  • Group Interview and Survey- based Analysis
    Eriko SATO
    2018 Volume 39 Pages 141-153
    Published: 2018
    Released: April 02, 2020
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    The purpose of this study was to clarify nursery teachers’ attitudes toward the current condition of art education in a training school for early childhood education. The author investigated desirable learning contents, and the problems, abilities, and qualities that should be acquired through such education. Research methods were mixed and based upon a qualitative analysis of a group interview and quantitative verification of those results through a questionnaire survey. Specifically, the findings confirmed that it is worthwhile to experience training in practical knowledge of how to ensure play is filled with delight and wonder. Sensibility to the growth of children, and flexibility that responds to their changing situation is also important.
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  • Image Media for Organizing and Understanding Context
    Osamu SAHARA
    2018 Volume 39 Pages 155-165
    Published: 2018
    Released: April 02, 2020
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    The research described in this paper focused on the role of image media in art education for high school and higher education students, as it relates to the dual public and personal aspects of photographs. Students engaged with mid-twentieth century black and white snapshots provided by a local photo studio to try to decode the public contexts of the images. Students interviewed local people who could remember the time period during which the photographs were taken, and following these interviews, the photographs were colorized by students. This experience helped students to interact more deeply with the context of the photographs. The photo colorizing process helped to give students a stronger sense of not only the reality of the photographs themselves, but also the historical context in which the photo was taken.
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  • Considering Art and Handicraft Classes Position as a Practical Subject
    Atsushi SUMI
    2018 Volume 39 Pages 167-183
    Published: 2018
    Released: April 02, 2020
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    Large numbers of teachers of the baby boom generation retired, and the number of young teachers has been growing nationwide. Against this backdrop, providing training to them is urgent. Despite this, compared with “major subjects,” there are few training opportunities to improve their capacity to deliver classes in “practical subjects,” including Art and Handicrafts. For this reason, we need to monitor the ongoing situation to understand how young teachers guide students in practical subjects, and how they are accumulating practical experience while overcoming challenges. Therefore, we recorded videos of classes and conducted interviews. Later we converted them into text data to visualize them and organized the details that emerged. The recorded videos of classes indicated that those receiving teacher education need training to recognize the appropriate time allocation in class, and a greater awareness of their communication skills are needed to emphasize interactions with children. The interview results revealed that experienced teachers conducting model classes would be helpful, teaching materials for practical subjects need to be assigned, the use ICT devices and methods of instruction based on textbooks and instruction books need to be taught, and skills required to teach practical subjects need to be mastered.
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  • A Study of the Recreation of Memories WITH or WITHOUT a Model
    Fumiko TAKAHASHI
    2018 Volume 39 Pages 185-196
    Published: 2018
    Released: April 02, 2020
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    This study confirmed that the memory drawing program for university students helps to develop their basic skills in self-expression, and the importance of focusing on “shape stock” has the capacity for taking or making forms and their integration. The enhancement of sensitivity levels is inevitable when making images. The study proved that the work of art can be evaluated by two elements; “shape” and “sensitivity.” I created the evaluation formulas with five grades for “shape stock.” The conclusions are 1) a qualitative and comprehensive “sensitivity level” was needed, since the mere quantitative and analytical “shape level” was insufficient to develop grades for the shape stock formula. 2) When memory drawings of prolonged memories from a model are compared to objective drawings, memory drawings scored 3.2 while objective drawings scored 4.6 on average using the new formula, showing a shift from custom drawings to more specific ones. 3) In the picture book of autobiographical memories without a model, shape was symbolically selected from shape stock, and self-expression was strongly confirmed by sensitivity levels.
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  • Practice of Medieval Art from “the Virgin of Kykkotissa” According to the History of Manga
    Mio TAKABAYASHI
    2018 Volume 39 Pages 197-208
    Published: 2018
    Released: April 02, 2020
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    This study examines the relationship between medieval art and Manga in the West. Furthermore, I planned my teaching plan based on my research because I considered it useful and practical for art education. Firstly, I explained that cartoons developed in the West bore some characteristics of medieval art, using a panel layout and speech bubble. They became the elements used to draw Manga. Cartoons from the West were introduced into Japan during the latter half of the 1800’s. After cartoons from the West were integrated and developed in the Japanese classical cartoon culture, they have become the foundation for Japanese Manga comics. Secondly, I devised a teaching plan intended for high school students and used the plan in an art class. The class adopted the worksheet focused on the relationship between medieval art and Manga to introduce art appreciation. Consequently, students’ ability to read and draw Manga as a first step in art appreciation led to an improved understanding of art history.
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  • Feedback on the Viewing of Taro Okamoto’s Rules of the Forest as a Case Study (8th Grade Students)
    Yoshikazu TACHIHARA
    2018 Volume 39 Pages 209-222
    Published: 2018
    Released: April 02, 2020
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    This paper looks at the type of accounts found on worksheets completed by eighth-grade students exploring the differences and commonalities between Taro Okamoto’s Rules of the Forest and Kaii Higashiyama’s Forest with a White Horse, both in intellectual and aesthetic terms. Based on this information, the study focused on whether students were more receptive to “emotion” or “intention” when understanding themes. This study revealed that fundamentally the difference between the two is determined by an ability for aesthetic appreciation. This is ranked in the first instance by counting the number of times a student senses an aesthetic property in the plastic features of the work. Those in the group with high receptivity to aesthetic properties were able to sense more themes as emotions than those with medium or low receptivity.
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  • The Articles of Yamaguchi Tsunenori a Teacher at the Sapporo Tohoku Elementary School
    Azusa NEYAMA
    2018 Volume 39 Pages 223-236
    Published: 2018
    Released: April 02, 2020
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    This article reports on five articles written by Tsunenori Yamaguchi in order to survey drawing education in Hokkaido before “Jiyuga” Education. Yamaguchi graduated from the teachers’ college of Sapporo in 1913, and was an elementary school teacher in Sapporo when he wrote the five articles. (1) The four articles Yamaguchi wrote for “Hokkai no Kyoiku” in 1917 and the article he wrote for “Hokkaido Kyoiku” in 1920 criticized drawing education for encouraging school children to concentrate on “Ringa”. In the “Ringa” class, schoolchildren had to draw the same picture as the picture in their textbooks. (2) Sapporo accepted “Shintei Gachou” as the drawing education textbook when Yamaguchi was a teacher at elementary school in Sapporo. It was a national textbook edited according to the concept, “Kyoiku teki Zuga.” Yamaguchi thought that he had to obey the concept, “Kyoiku teki Zuga,” but it was not easy for him to interpret the concept, “Kyoiku teki Zuga.” Yamaguchi sometimes complained about “Shintei Gachou” in his articles.
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  • Research on Teachers’ Burden to Teach in Arts and Crafts Classes
    Nobuko HAGIUDA, Motohiro KOZAWA, Honami ARIHARA, Ken YAGETA
    2018 Volume 39 Pages 237-248
    Published: 2018
    Released: April 02, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Arts and crafts classes are mandatory in elementary schools in Japan, but very few teachers have a background in arts education. To concretely grasp teachers’ burden in arts and crafts classes at elementary schools, firstly, we interviewed 20 teachers to develop a survey. Secondly, we conducted a survey with 89 teachers (average years of teaching 12.1 years, SD 10.95 years, range 1–37 years). Results showed that teachers with less teaching experience tended to experience a stronger burden in the class. They also wanted to learn about wider varieties of art supplies and techniques. Overall, the teachers frequently stated that they wanted to learn more about how to use art supplies, how to teach expression techniques, and how to grade a student in arts and crafts classes. In addition, they especially wondered how to evaluate student’s artwork.
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  • A Focus on the World Student Free Drawing Exhibition in the Hokuriku District
    Masayuki HACHIYA
    2018 Volume 39 Pages 249-261
    Published: 2018
    Released: April 02, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This article aims to examine the newspaper reports of the free drawing exhibitions held in the Hokuriku district during the Taisho era, and to explore the expansion of free drawing education in the region. The article focuses mainly on the “World Student Free Drawing Exhibition” held in 1920. Using reports on the exhibition circulated to four cities in the Hokuriku area, I analyzed the overview of the exhibition, the opinions of experts, as well as comments from students and the general public, and the artworks. Although I have already reported on this exhibition, as in the case of Takaoka, this study extends my previous article to analyze other cities. It includes Fukui, Kanazawa, and Toyama, the different views of professionals from these cities, and comments on students’ artwork. This study confirms that newspaper reports supported free drawing education as a new style of art education, thereby contributing to the spread of a new wave of education in the Hokuriku district.
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  • An Analysis Based on the Verbal Protocol of Observers with Visual Impairment
    Kozue HANDA, Atsuko MIYAMOTO
    2018 Volume 39 Pages 263-274
    Published: 2018
    Released: April 02, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper explores the process of art appreciation of sculpture through touch by the visually impaired. Focusing on the condition of non-seeing, namely “seeing with the hands,” this research aims to identify a model of aesthetic process through touch. During this study, three blind adults with significant tactile and art experiences were selected as participants. During their appreciation, “speech loud method” was implemented and the participants’ protocol was coded and analyzed. Through “seeing with the hands,” all three participants created a mental image while simultaneously capturing the sculpture’s most delicate tactile characteristics. From a temporal perspective, we found that participants first concentrated on observation to create a mental image, followed by a review of the work to check the image, which gave participants a foundation for proceeding to formal analysis. Finally this process was coupled with the message sensed from the piece along with the participant’s own experience/emotions, to construct the meaning of the work. In conclusion, our research revealed that the aesthetic process through touch involves five stages: perception; classification; identification; review and analysis; and finally, interpretation and evaluation.
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  • A Quantitative Analysis of an Art Certification Test
    Tomoki HIRANO, Takaaki OKUMURA
    2018 Volume 39 Pages 275-287
    Published: 2018
    Released: April 02, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    During this study, we attempted to clarify the relationship between art appreciation and knowledge by quantitatively analyzing data collected from an “Art Certification Test” based on the basic theory of testing. Three suggestions were obtained. Firstly, questions asking about knowledge of art history and knowledge and information use requiring knowledge-based thinking and judgment were qualitatively different. Secondly, the design of the questions and correct answer by grade focused upon points of knowledge that differ for each grade. Thirdly, the correlation between the rate of correct answers to knowledge and information use questions and the question pattern, indicated that knowledge-based thinking and judgment requires different levels of knowledge according to grade.
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  • Through an Analysis of Wallcharts at the Former Kaichi School in the Meiji Era
    Yuri MAKINO
    2018 Volume 39 Pages 289-300
    Published: 2018
    Released: April 02, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    During this research, I examined the effects of visual educational materials on education floor plans and equipment ledgers used at the former Kaichi school during the Meiji era. The three findings are listed below. 1) According to the analysis of the equipment register in 1910, I found that the school possessed 1,244 wallcharts. 2) It was revealed that 198 (16%) were created by “staff (or teachers)” by totaling the number of “authors or sellers.” It was found that the “staff (or teachers)” created teaching materials closely related to maps, history, and industry during the Shinshu area, and were influenced by the “Matsumoto Educational Exposition.” 3) It was revealed that Shusui Okakura, a Japanese-style painter, and Kiyoshi Morikawa, a drawing lecturer at Women’s Higher Normal School, were painters of educational wallcharts. It is suggested that schools were aesthetically sensitive to these painters’ paintings, although indirectly, through their use in the educational curriculum of other subjects.
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  • “How we Understand Art” - A Cognitive Developmental Account of Aesthetic Art Experience in an Elementary School Class
    Motoko MATSUI
    2018 Volume 39 Pages 301-313
    Published: 2018
    Released: April 02, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Art education is practiced to enrich the sensibility of children, and art appreciation requires children to grasp the work from its beginning to end. In 1987 Parsons published “How we understand art: A cognitive developmental account of aesthetic experience art”. When applied the theory to the art class of elementary school, children’s dialog will ensure deep learning. This new perspective on art appreciation will enhances children’s capacity to create their own aesthetic values through dialog and cooperation with a variety of individuals with different ways of thinking.
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  • The Reaction of Schools to the Maldives’ National Curriculum (1984)
    Kanae MINOWA
    2018 Volume 39 Pages 315-328
    Published: 2018
    Released: April 02, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This article aims to investigate art education in the Maldives, which began with introduction of the National Curriculum in 1984, from the perspective of the actual condition of the schools at that time. Three types of material are used to show the reaction to introducing art education in the Maldives: text data from interviews with Maldivian teachers, a sample book made by a teacher, and a collection of paintings made by Maldivian children. The study consequently reveals the following: art education spread rapidly on a national scale despite it being a novel subject; teachers’ guidebooks published by the Ministry of Education played an important role in this, and the concepts of modern art education were accepted and practiced in classes from the very beginning.
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  • Artistic Play Among Elementary School Children
    Toru MURATA
    2018 Volume 39 Pages 329-346
    Published: 2018
    Released: April 02, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper aims to clarify the exploratory behavior of children during formative acts of expression. During this study, artistic play was initiated among elementary school children and the children’s behavior recorded using a video camera. This observation and video analysis enabled us to reach certain conclusions. First, it was observed that, when children created different artistic objects, they used tools and materials in an original way. This behavior expressed the development of their sense of identity. Second, it was observed that children’s expressive behavior has various characteristics. These included material work, pattern making, and sign making. Third, through formative acts of expression, children discovered the value of artistic objects and the use of original tools and materials. In addition, children became aware of problems, and tried to explore solutions. Fourth, children’s exploratory behavior occurred in relationships among themselves, where they understood and created values and problems.
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  • Shunroku MORINAGA
    2018 Volume 39 Pages 347-359
    Published: 2018
    Released: April 02, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    When using optical illusions and trompe l’oeil as subject material in class, illustrations such as those in textbooks or books of paintings are generally introduced. This approach has limitations, however. By moving interactive figures and shifting perspectives at will, students experience a real feel for optical illusions and trompe l’oeil. Information technology is rapidly being introduced in schools, and personal computers and electronic blackboards are becoming common. More and more municipalities are providing tablets for all of their students as well. In this context, this research describes the development of digital teaching materials consisting of software with a digital content database that makes use of moving images and allows interactive manipulation and the shifting of perspective. This allows students to experience optical illusions and trompe l’oeil in a way that is easy to understand. This article, which features actual images from the software, describes the design concepts behind the program.
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  • A Consideration of the Influential Relationships between Social Engagement and Art Creation
    Chiharu YASUZATO
    2018 Volume 39 Pages 361-372
    Published: 2018
    Released: April 02, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The aim of this study was to discuss how learning art encourages the social participation of seniors during the third age. Eleven seniors aged 65–76 were interviewed. The interview data were analyzed using M-GTA for qualitative methods. Results revealed that three factors enhance student’s learning activities; the purpose of learning, the value of learning, and the prospect of learning. The purpose of learning motivates the student to begin learning. The value of learning supports all aspects of a student’s learning activities. The prospect of learning encourages students to continue learning. At this stage, the continuation of learning motivates the student to seek satisfaction from learning. Furthermore, learning art during the third age as a form of social participation can effectively widen and deepen the student’s enjoyment of learning. It was also found that social engagement affects the student’s evaluation of learning. This implies that social engagement in learning art is a factor that improves students’ art skills.
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  • Qualitative Analysis of Technology Transfer in Art Education in Latin America
    Takeshi YAMADA
    2018 Volume 39 Pages 373-390
    Published: 2018
    Released: April 02, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Japan has been participating in international cooperative art education for a half century. However, there are only a few case studies focusing on cooperation from Japan, and these studies have not explored the availability of technology transfer. Based on investigations of reports written by volunteers, issues have been raised such as the flexibility of the length of stay, and the consciousness gap between volunteers and educators due to their different standpoints. However, it has become clear that the availability of technology transfer has been determined by volunteers’ openness to mental transformation and psychological flexibility. While some of the problems must be fixed, at the same time an unsuccessful transfer model also revealed possible solutions based on the survey results.
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  • Kumiko YOSHIKAWA, Yuki ANZAI, Yuhei YAMAUCHI
    2018 Volume 39 Pages 391-407
    Published: 2018
    Released: April 02, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this research was to propose conducting art workshops that could enable junior high school students to self-disclose and gain deeper insights into their own process. To do this, we focused on students being able to observe the creative process of artists directly, who create based upon content derived from their inner self, using “mitate.” I hypothesized that junior high school students would be better able to express their inner selves by observing the creative processes of such artists. I recruited junior high school students, divided them into two groups, and showed one group the creative processes through a video of an interview with an artist. I examined the differences between the effects on the two groups. The results showed that the group that watched the interview video demonstrated a variety of self- expressions derived from their inner process, while the group that did not watch the video hardly touched upon such expressions.
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  • Focusing on Clay Modeling Classes
    Nahoko YOSHIDA
    2018 Volume 39 Pages 409-421
    Published: 2018
    Released: April 02, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This research focused on clay modeling classes at Steiner schools and examined their significance for human development. It confirmed the founder R.Steiner’s viewpoints of human nature and children’s development, and discussed the literature about clay modeling and activities at the Nuremberg Steiner school, where the author conducted an observation of teaching practices. As a result, this paper clarified that clay modeling mainly works on the “Body (Leib)” due to the characteristics of the clay that is manipulated directly with the hands, on the “Soul(Seele)” due to the imaginative activities connected with learning content from classes spanning 1st to 8th grade work, and on the “Spirit(Geist)” by making invisible and abstract works in classes after 9th grade, so that the whole human being is educated systematically over 12 years of education. According to the above, this research may suggest how the subject teaching with art activities should be done in the Japanese education and the possibility of education for harmonious human development.
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  • Traits and Structure of Previous Studies
    Manabu WADA
    2018 Volume 39 Pages 423-434
    Published: 2018
    Released: April 02, 2020
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    Learning dilemmas cultivate problem-solving abilities among learners and are greatly valued in the field of art education. Previous studies of dilemmas of aesthetic judgment discuss the value of art in terms of its social context, and dilemmas of value discuss the quality of art in terms of an experience of work. The purpose of this study was to clarify the traits of both learning dilemmas by comparing them with studies investigating similar approaches to art education. The study clarified that learners experience a failure of structure and problem-solving as traits of learning dilemmas.
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  • 2018 Volume 39 Pages 436-437
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  • 2018 Volume 39 Pages 443-445
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