One of the major factors for successful DCs immunotherapy is thought to be the maintenance of the migratory activity of matured DCs. We evaluated the effectiveness of PSK on OK432-activated DCs, in terms of maturation, migration and induction of CTLs. When DCs were treated with both OK432 and PSK, migration ability of the DCs were significantly high as compared to OK432 alone preserving the beneficial effect of OK432 treatment. BRM cocktail treatment with OK432 and PSK induced high level of migration activity in activated DCs, suggesting a potential protocol for more effective DCs immunotherapy for cancer.
Purpose; An endocrine treatment using aromatase inhibitor (AI) is a standard strategy for postmenopausal patients with hormone receptor positive breast cancer. Postmenopausal patients who relapsed during adjuvant AI treatment or progression within a year after completion of AI treatment were prospectively treated with 40 mg/day of toremifene (TOR) in order to examine the effect of the selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) in AI-refractory patients. Patients and Methods; Twenty-three postmenopausal breast cancer patients who relapsed during adjuvant AI treatment or relapsed within a year after completion of AI were enrolled in the prospective trial from January 2007 to February 2010. Out of the patients, 14 cases had measurable or evaluable lesions, and the other had only bone metastasis. All patients were treated with toremifene of 40 mg/day. The primary efficacy end point for the trial was clinical response and secondary end point was progression free survival (PFS). Result; The objective response rate in the patients with measurable lesions was 7.1% (1/14) and clinical benefit rate was 28.6%. In the patients with evaluable bone disease, clinical benefit was 44.4%. No serious adverse event was observed except a patient with grade 3 non-hematological toxicity (AST and ALT). Conclusion; The SERM, toremifene (40 mg/day), demonstrated a safe profile and a favorable effect on disease control after adjuvant AI failure.
Background: The early detection of colorectal cancer is important issue for improving the survival rate. Although fecal occult-blood testing and Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in serum is widely used for noninvasive screen method, it has limited sensitivity. Methods: 142 patients with primary colorectal cancer who underwent surgery and 150 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. 37 of the tumors (26%) were Stage I, 34 (24%) were Stage II, 58 (41%) were Stage III, 12 (9%) were Stage IV. In each serum sample, CEA, p53 antibodies, and CEA-IgM complexes were measured. Results: The diagnostic sensitivity with CEA (cut-off: 5 ng/ml) and p53 antibodies (cut-off: 3.0 U/ml) was 48% (68/142), Stage I 16% (6/37), Stage II 56% (19/34), Stage III 53% (31/58), and Stage IV 92% (12/13), while false positive rate was 7% (10/150). Because the sensitivity of CEA-IgM (cut-off: 150 AU/ml) was low, three tests combination did not much increase the overall sensitivity. Conclusions: The sensitivity of CEA-IgM for detecting colon cancer was lower than expected from previous study. As for the specificity of p53-antibodies, because its sensitivity is preserved with cut-off at 3.0 U/ml, re-evaluation of present cut-off level (1.3 U/ml) seemed to be needed.
Cancer incidence in women has been slightly higher than men in Malaysia, related somewhat to the lifestyles and socioeconomic development of the country. It is one of the debilitating health problems affecting women. Of the 10 most common cancers affecting women of Malaysia, breast cancer is the biggest threat, followed by colorectal and cervical cancer according to the latest available national report in 2006. Malaysia offers a variety of treatment centers and choice of treatments; some are guided by the availability of national guidelines, such as that for breast and cervical cancers. Research has actively been conducted to find out the best and future approach on screening, diagnosis and treatment for cancers affecting women. This is made possible with the government taking the lead and the important works which are highly supported by the relevant non-governmental bodies and the public. Improvement is still needed for increasing coverage of screening and public awareness on cancer prevention.
Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) frequently recurs after curative resection. In the present study, we assessed the survival of HCC patients with or without preoperative transarterial immunoembolization (TIE) in relation to changes in serum cytokine levels and histological characteristics of resected specimens. Methods: After confirmation of the safety and feasibility of preoperative TIE in a preliminary study of 9 patients, 15 pa-tients who planned to undergo curative resection of HCC were randomized to the TIE group (n=8) or the control group (n=7). TIE was performed with a mixture of OK-432, fibrinogen, thrombin, and lipiodol. Hepatic resection was planned 2 weeks after TIE. Results: In the preliminary study, none of 9 patients with TIE developed complications that were severe enough to postpone the scheduled operation. Retrospectively, the 3-year disease-free and overall survival rate in the 9 patients who received preoperative TIE were both 100%; in contrast, the disease-free survival and overall survival were 27% and 64%, respectively, in 22 patients who received a hepatectomy around the same period without TIE. Furthermore, the prospective study revealed that the 3-year disease-free survival and overall survival in the TIE group were 88% and 100%, which were significantly higher than the corresponding rates in the control group (17% and 57%, respectively, both: p<0.05). Serum levels of interleukin-12 and interferon gamma were increased after TIE. Histologically, significant infiltrations of dendritic cells were observed in embolized areas, but the infiltration of FOXP3-positive cells was significantly suppressed after TIE. Conclusion: Preoperative TIE suppresses recurrences of HCC after surgery. The suppressive effect might be caused by increased levels of helper T-cell 1 cytokines, the accumulation and maturation of dendritic cells, and the suppression of T-regulatory lymphocytes.