Tribal mixing is a social characteristic in East African societies. This paper aims to seek a probability to classificate and systemize social units such as family, neighbourhood, village, chiefdom and town in African Bantu societies according to two indexes, population and number of tribes co-existing in each social unit in these societies. Here I adopted two indexes, (1) number of population (P), and (2) number of tribes which members form more than 1 percent of total population of a social unit (N). Then I tried to locate each social unit on coordinations which set number of population as horizontal axes in logarithm scale and number of tribes as vertical axes. In this attempt to locate each social unit on coordinations, I can find a number of systems of succession in development of each social units, which are showed in incline of line which link up each set of same social units. As I showed in Fig. 7, 8, 9, (Page 16, 17, 18) we can find a number of systems in incline of lines, namely the lowest incline C1 (Succession of societies of exclusive chiefdom), next incline C2 (Succession of societies of inclusive chiefdom) and (Succession of societies of old settlement type) and the highest incline T (Succession of societies of new settlement type-i.e. colonial towns). All lines of C1, C2 concentrate on one point (P=500, N=4). I ordained this point C as the hypothetical original setting of each set of succession of social units such as chiefdom, old town settlement, and also point T (P=500, N=11) as the hypothetical original setting of succession of new town settlement. This systems of social units would be able to show in a formula as following; P=p⋅10N-n/k P=number of population of a social unit. N=number of tribes in a social unit. P=hypothetical number of population of the original setting of succession. n=hypothetical number of tribes of the original setting of succession. k=coefficient of tribal mixing. According to this formula, we can indicate population formula of each succession type. inclusive chiefdom P=500⋅10N-4 (k=1) exclusive chiefdom P=500⋅10N-4/2 (k=2) also P=500⋅10N-4/3 (k=3) also P=500⋅10N-4/4 (k=4) old settlement P=500⋅10N-4/5 (k=5) new settlement P=500⋅10N-11/4 (k=4) So each succession is provided in three invariable number p, n, and k. In this paper I showed some examples of application of this principle to some Bantu societies of north-western region of Tanzania. I think that this principle of explanation of societies will be able to apply to other African societies and to provide comparative criterion to studies of African societies.
In this article the author deals with the possibility of combining the mineral resources with energy resources for industrial development in Africa. As Prof. C. Bettelheim points out, the prerequisite for economic development consists in mobilizing the existing domestic natural resources for industrialization. In this sense the abundance of the mineral and energy resources in Africa makes it possible to accelerate her economic growth if they are properly utilized.
Three main trends might be demarcated in the current studies of social dynamics in tribal societies: the deviation theory (Firth 1964: 45) focuses its attention on the study of deviated behaviors, the accumulation of which may lead to a radical change of the present social structure; the equilibrium theory, on the other hand, concentrates its efforts to detect certain significant elements opposing one another in a social organization, which do not necessarily result in a structural change (Fortes 1945, Gluckman 1955, Marwick 1965, Turner 1957); then the contradiction theory (Balandier 1962) insists that a structural change may be brought forth by the crisis (crise) generated by European influences. The last view may be most appropriate to analizing the problems disclosed in a Chiga village, Buhara, Uganda. The present author lived among the people for five months in early 1968. In addition to the general observations and communications with his neighbors, he collected some hundreds dispute cases recorded at the village court. He is profoundly grateful to Mr. A. Ntegamahe and Mr. B. Izongoze, both the Magistrates, and Mr. K. Otebwa, the Court Registrar, for their benevolent collaborations. The residents of Buhara have been under European influence for forty years. Some of the most distinguished changes be seen in their consumption, education and administration systems. The villagers now stand in need of articles rich in variety: clothes, matches, soap, salt, sugar, etc., all of which are available at shops and a market at Buhara Trading Center. People demand more money to satisfy their expanded desires for these commodities. Their production system is, however, not much improved. They are planting staple corns and beans without any manure, and no cash crops such as coffee and plantain can fruitfully raised owing to the chilly temperature. A reasonable amount of cash income is solely guaranteed by a wage-labor though, any opportunity for a job is extremely limited in the rural area. The minimum requirement for an employment at town is seven years' primary education. The school is open to every child, but the fathers are short of money covering the tuition fees for so long a period, for a father normally has seven or more children. A Chiga father is, therefore, unable to yield enough money to purchase commodities nor to give an adequate schooling to get a job at town. The lack of his capacity in the overwhelming cash economy has inevitably weaken his authority: a family head can no longer exercise an absolute authority over his dependents. The family members are, on the other hand, not yet completely independent from their father. With insufficient schooling they can hardly leave the village to earn a living at town. They are still obliged to stay behind and cultivate their father's land and somewhat to accept his authority. A contradiction of this sort, for instance, is unceasingly yielding conflicts and disputes over the land, cattle, marriage and so forth. These troubles are definitely visualized in the tribunal records at the village court, Buhara. The present article is for a preliminary treatment of the records with the theoretical orientation discussed above. Three cases are here elucidated and analized in full detail: a land dispute between a woman and her real brother; a marital trouble in connection with the bride-wealth; and a violence case within a family compound, i. e., a wife versus her husband's brother. The contradiction theory, in conclusion, seems to be most profitable to study these dispute cases. Conflicts and tensions disclosed in the troubles are, after all, originated and generated by European influence upon the traditional society. A tribal society may change itself by means of the deviated activities though, the contact with European civilization multiplies its effects incomparably. Causes of the tremendous contradictions and the process of their reformations